- USB mass storage device class
The USB mass storage device class or USB MSC or UMS is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the
USB Implementers Forumthat run on the Universal Serial Bus. The standard provides an interface to a variety of storage devices.
Some of the devices which are connected to computers via this standard are:
* external magnetic
* external optical drives, including
CDand DVDreader and writer drives
* adapters bridging between standard flash
memory cards and a USB connection
digital audio players & portable media players
* Portable Gaming systems (Nokia N-GAGE/Sony PSP)
* personal data assistants and handheld computers
* some newer mobile phones, such as the
Sony Ericsson K800and K510, Nokia N73, Nokia E61
Devices which support this standard are referred to as MSC (Mass Storage Class) devices. While MSC is the official abbreviation, UMS (Universal Mass Storage) has become common in on-line jargon.
Operating system support
Most current mainstream
operating systems include support for USB mass storage devices, although support on older systems is available through patches.
Windows 95OSR2.1, an update to the operating system, featured very limited support for USB. During that time, no generic USB mass storage driver was produced by Microsoft, even for Windows 98. This meant that a device-specific driver was needed for each type of USB storage device. Today, generic drivers which support USB flash drives even in Windows 98 are available as free downloads. By 2000, the problem was almost solved. Products designed for Windows Meand Windows 2000(where a specific driver was required only for rare devices) are only fully corrected in subsequent OSes. On Windows Server 2003, however, a drive letter has to be assigned to it in order to access it. This can be done in Disk Management (under Computer Management (local) | Storage | Disk Management).
There is no native (supplied by Microsoft) support for USB in
Windows NT, earlier versions of Windows, or MS-DOS, although some third-party solutions exist for each OS. A third party [http://www.technical-assistance.co.uk/kb/usbmsd98.php driver] for Windows 98 and Windows 98SE is also now available. There is also a USB UMS [http://ftp1.digi.com/support/driver/i4usb403.exe driver] for Windows NT 4. FreeDOSsupports USB mass storage as ASPIdevices. Windows Mobilesupports accessing of the most USB mass storage devices formatted with FAT on devices with USB Host, although portable devices typically cannot provide enough power for disk enclosures containing hard drives (a 2.5" hard drivetypically requires the maximum 2.5 W provided by the USB specification). On the other way around, Windows Mobile devices can not show their file systems as a mass storage device unless the device implementer explicitly decides to add such functionality. However, third party applications exist to add MSC emulation to most WM devices (commercial "Softick CardExport" and free "WM5torage"). Generally only memory cards can be exported, and not internal storage memory, due to the complications outlined below.
Apple Computer's Mac OS8.5.1 supports USB mass storage through an optional driver.Mac OS 9 and Mac OS Xsupport USB mass storage natively.
Linux kernelhas supported USB mass storage devices via a generic driversince kernel version 2.4 (year 2001), and a backportto kernel 2.2 has also been made. Solaris also supports devices since the 2.8 release and up (year 1998), NetBSDsince the 1.5 release and up (year 2000), FreeBSDsince the 4.0 release and up (year 2000), and OpenBSDsince the 2.7 release and up (year 2000).
AmigaOSsupports UMASS storage devices through [http://platon42.de/poseidon.html Poseidon] , a third-party USB stack which has become a de facto standard. It supports various USB device types through a modular system of Hardware Independent Device Driver (HIDD) classes. Poseidon as used in AmigaOS Classic up to version 4.0, and in the MorphOSoperating system. The supposedly final AmigaOS version of the Poseidon stack is released OEM licensed with the Deneb USB card in May 2008.AmigaOS 4.0 has its own USB stack called Sirion, though it can still use Poseidon.A new USB stack called [http://utilitybase.com/projects/anaiis ANAIIS] (Another Native Amiga IO Interface Stack) is available for all Amiga platforms with Highway or Subway hardware, but does not yet support UMASS.
FAT16 and FAT32 filesystems are supported by the
FAT95filesystem. AROS, an Open SourceAmigaOS clone for Intelbased PCs, does support UHCI and OHCI USB root hubs (since May 2007) but does not yet support USB mass storage class.
Xbox 360and PlayStation 3support most mass storage devices.
Independent developers have released drivers for the
TI-84 Plusand TI-84 Plus Silver Editionin order to access USB mass storage devices. usb8xcontains the driver for this access, while msd8xhandles the user interface.
The USB mass storage specification does not require any particular
file systemto be used on conforming devices. Instead, it provides a simple interface to read and write sectors of data—much like the low-level interface used to access any hard drive—using the " SCSItransparent command set." Operating systems may treat the USB drive like a hard drive, and can format it with any file system they like.
Because of its ubiquity and relative simplicity, the most common file system on embedded devices such as
USB flash drives, cameras, or digital audio players is Microsoft's FAT or FAT32file system with (optional) support for long names. Large USB-based hard disks may come formatted with NTFS, which is much less supported outside Microsoft Windows. However, a keydriveor any other device may be formatted using another filesystem (for example HFS Pluson an Apple Macintosh, or Ext2under Linux, or Unix File Systemunder Solaris or BSD). Of course, this choice may limit other operating systems' ability to access the contents of the device.
In cameras, MP3 players, and similar gadgets which must access the file system independently from an external host, the FAT filesystem is typically preferred by device manufacturers.
Complications of the mass-storage device class
The mass storage interface is an attractive option for many devices, such as cameras and media players, which are nonetheless capable of more functionality than being simple data repositories. By presenting themselves as simple datastores, these devices can take advantage of the high degree of support for the USB mass-storage device class in current operating systems' USB driver stacks and allow easy read and write access to their internal memories. The downside of doing so is that it prevents the device from easily presenting its actual functional behavior across the USB interface too. For example, the makers of a digital still camera would also like it to implement the
USB still-image device class, allowing it to be controlled by image capture software.
Some USB digital cameras feature a switch allowing them to appear either as a mass-storage device or as a still-picture device (
PictBridgeor PTP), but they cannot be both at the same time because file system layers in operating systems usually assume that they are the only user. As a result of this, the PTP implementation in the device would be unable to change the underlying filesystem without making the host's operating system's notion of the changed sectors inconsistent.
file systems were not devised with flash memoryin mind.Flash-specific concerns like limited number of writes per cell can be affected by a write-heavy file system, causing flash memory manufacturers to reserve about 5 percent of each medium's capacity for wear leveling.On the other hand, issues such as fragmentation or contiguity which affect magnetic disk performance are irrelevant in flash, because they impose no appreciable I/Oseeking delays. However, fragmentation may lead to reduced performance with file systems that use extents.
Hard drive-based devices
Many modern hard drives support additional advanced commands, such as
Native Command Queuing, which may increase performance, and S.M.A.R.T., which allows a computer to measure various indicators of drive reliability. These exist as extensions to the basic low-level command sets used by hard drives, such as SCSI, SATA, or PATA.
These features do not work when hard drives are encapsulated in a
disk enclosuresupporting the USB mass storage interface. USB mass storage provides a "generic" interface which only provides basic read/write commands, as outlined above. This works perfectly well for basic data transfer using hard drive-based devices, however it means that there is no simple way to send advanced, device-specific commands to USB mass storage devices (although devices may create their own communication protocols over the USB-standard "control interface").
eSATAstandard for external drives promises to address this issue, since it extends the internal SATA bus to external disks without any intermediate translation layer.
Disk encryption software
Media Transfer Protocol
Picture Transfer Protocol
USB flash drive
* [http://www.technical-assistance.co.uk/kb/usbmsd98.php Installing USB Mass Storage Devices on Windows 98] - Generic driver download for Windows 98SE to allow USB mass storage devices to work
* [http://www.lvr.com/mass_storage.htm Jan Axelson's Usb Mass Storage article & book]
* [http://www.usb.org/developers/devclass_docs/usb_msc_overview_1.2.pdf Mass Storage device class specification] — on the site of the USB Implementers Forum.
* [http://www.usb.org/developers/devclass_docs/usb_msc_boot_1.0.pdf Bootability specification Mass Storage bootability specification] — describes how bootable USB Mass Storage devices should work.
* [http://www.usb.org/developers/devclass_docs/usbmassbulk_10.pdf "USB Mass Storage BOT" ] is a link that often rots, lately found buried at [http://usb.org "USB"] -> Developers -> Documents -> Class Specs -> Approved -> Mass Storage -> "Mass Storage Bulk Only 1.0".
* [http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/storage/usbfaq.mspx "Microsoft USB Storage FAQ"]
* [http://www.kernel.org/git/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=blob;f=drivers/usb/gadget/file_storage.c USB Mass Storage Device Source Code in Linux]
* [http://www.kernel.org/git/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=tree;f=drivers/usb/storage USB Mass Storage Host Source Code in Linux]
* [http://marketingasolicitor.com/?p=121 Using a USB Mass Storage Device with an Xbox 360]
* [http://www.usb-server.com/usb-client.html USB Server]
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