Horwich


Horwich

infobox UK place
latitude= 53.593
longitude= -2.559
official_name= Horwich
population= 19,312 (2001 Census)
os_grid_reference= SD639114
london_distance= convert|177|mi|km|0|abbr=on SE
civil_parish= Horwich
metropolitan_borough= Bolton
metropolitan_county= Greater Manchester
region= North West England
country= England
post_town= BOLTON
postcode_area= BL
postcode_district= BL6
dial_code= 01204
constituency_westminster= Bolton West
static_

static_image_caption=Horwich Parish Church
website= [http://www.horwich.gov.uk/ www.horwich.gov.uk]

Horwich (pronounced "Horrich") is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, in Greater Manchester, England.cite web|url=http://www.gmcro.co.uk/guides/gazette/gazframe.htm|date=2003-07-31|title=A select gazetteer of local government areas, Greater Manchester County|publisher=Greater Manchester County Record Office|accessdate=2008-05-02] It is convert|5.3|mi|km|1 southeast of Chorley, convert|5.8|mi|km|1 northwest of Bolton and convert|20|mi|km|0 northwest from the city of Manchester.

Historically a part of Lancashire, it lies at the southern edge of the West Pennine Moors with the M61 motorway close to the south and west, and Blackrod to the southwest. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, Horwich has a population of 19,312. [cite web |url=http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadAreaSearch.do?a=3&c=Horwich&i=1001&m=0&enc=1&areaSearchText=Horwich&areaSearchType=16&extendedList=true&searchAreas=Search |title=Horwich CP (Parish) |author= United Kingdom Census 2001 |publisher=neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk |accessdate=2007-04-12]

History

Horwich's origins began as a hunting chase in mediaeval times for the Barons of Manchester. Horwich continued as such until the 17th century, although the amount of woodland was reduced for house building and for fuel.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

During the 16th and 17th centuries other occupations began to take place in Horwich - farming, spinning, weaving and crofting. In 1770, two brothers, John and Joseph Ridgway moved their bleaching works from Bolton to Horwich.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

It is not known when Horwich's first chapel was built, but in 1565 the Commissioners for Removing Superstitious Ornaments took various idolatrous items from Horwich Chapel. This chapel was replaced with a larger one in 1782 to accommodate the increasing population. The second chapel itself was replaced with an even larger church in 1831, which is still standing. Until 1853 Horwich was a chapelry in the historic ecclesiastical parish of Deane, after that date Horwich became an ecclesiastical parish of its own right.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

In the 17th and 18th centuries there were a number of non-conformists in Horwich. In 1719 they built their own "new chapel" and named so to distinguish Horwich's (Anglican) "old chapel". This building is still known today as New Chapel. In the 18th and 19th centuries other non-conformist churches and chapels were built in Horwich.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

Horwich Works

In 1881 Horwich still had a small population with 3,761 inhabitants and around 900 houses, this hadn't changed much in the previous fifty years. In the next 10 years Horwich was transformed into a town of 12,850 people in 1891.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

In the spring of 1884 the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR) started work to build a new large locomotive works in Horwich when the company's works at Miles Platting became too small. By November 1886 Horwich Locomotive Works became up and working when the first locomotives were taken in for repair. The first newly built locomotive (Number 1008) left the works in 1887. This locomotive is now preserved at the National Railway Museum.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)] Simmons, Jack, (1986) "The Railway in Town and Country," Newton Abbot: David and Charles (ISBN 0-7153869-9-9)] Larkin, Edgar J. and Larkin, John G., (1988) "The Railway Workshops of Great Britain, 1823-1986," London: Macmillan Press (ISBN 0-3333943-1-3)]

In both the First and Second World Wars Horwich Works played an important part with the manufacture of tanks, munitions, etc.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

The original company which owned Horwich Locomotive Works was amalgamated in the early 20th century with other railway companies until they were eventually nationalised in 1948 by the Transport Act 1947 and becoming British Railways. In 1962, British Railways transferred control of all its main works to a central body called British Railways Workshops Division, with its headquarters in Derby. In 1970 this Workshops Division was renamed British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL).Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)] Simmons, Jack, (1986) "The Railway in Town and Country," Newton Abbot: David and Charles (ISBN 0-7153869-9-9)] Larkin, Edgar J. and Larkin, John G., (1988) "The Railway Workshops of Great Britain, 1823-1986," London: Macmillan Press (ISBN 0-3333943-1-3)]

The last steam locomotive constructed at Horwich Works left on November 27, 1957 and the last diesel built there left on December 28, 1962. Horwich Works was reduced to repairing engines and finally maintaining railway wagons. On February 18, 1983 BREL announced that the works was to close at the end of the year. Protest marches and spirited trade union resistance failed to alter the decision and so at 1 pm on Friday, December 23, 1983 Horwich Works closed after 97 years.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)] Simmons, Jack, (1986) "The Railway in Town and Country," Newton Abbot: David and Charles (ISBN 0-7153869-9-9)] Larkin, Edgar J. and Larkin, John G., (1988) "The Railway Workshops of Great Britain, 1823-1986," London: Macmillan Press (ISBN 0-3333943-1-3)]

Governance

Horwich was once a township in the historic ecclesiastical parish of Deane, in the Hundred of Salford of Lancashire. [http://www.gmcro.co.uk/guides/gazette/gazzg.htm "Official British Place Name Archives - Horwich"] , "Greater Manchester County Records Office". URL accessed March 28, 2007.]

In 1837 Horwich joined with other townships (or civil parishes) in the area to form the Bolton Poor Law Union and took joint responsibility for the administration and funding of the Poor Law in that area. [http://www.gmcro.co.uk/guides/gazette/gazzg.htm "Official British Place Name Archives - Horwich"] , "Greater Manchester County Records Office". URL accessed March 28, 2007.]

In 1872 the Horwich Local Board of Health was established for the area of the township, and was superseded by the creation of Horwich Urban District of the administrative county of Lancashire in 1894. Under the Local Government Act 1972 Horwich Urban District was abolished in 1974 and its area became a successor parish of the newly created Metropolitan Borough of Bolton in Greater Manchester.

On the 9 January 1974 Horwich was granted a Town Charter by the Earl Marshal, which officially gave Horwich the status of a town, which included a town mayor and town council. On the 6 December 1974 the Earl Marshal also granted and assigned an official Coat of Arms for the town. Horwich had been using an unofficial Coat of Arms. [http://www.horwich.gov.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=28&Itemid=41 Horwich Coat of Arms] . URL accessed March 29, 2007]

In March 1990 the towns of Horwich and Crowborough (East Sussex) entered into a unique and historic twinning arrangement when they became the first towns within the United Kingdom to sign a Town Twinning Charter. The charter was signed by the mayors of Horwich and Crowborough at a ceremony in the Public Hall, Horwich on the 22nd March 1990 and in the Town Hall, Crowborough on the 27th March 1990. [http://www.horwich.gov.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=33&Itemid=38 Horwich's Town Twinning] . URL accessed March 29, 2007]

Geography

The landscape of the area is dominated by Winter Hill, Rivington Pike and the West Pennine Moors.

1.5 km south of the town centre is Red Moss, a 47.2 hectare (116.6 acre) Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) which was designated in 1995 because of its biological interest. Red Moss is the best example of lowland raised mire in Greater Manchester and is one of 21 SSSIs in the area. [cite web | title=Red Moss citation sheet | work=Natural England | url=http://www.english-nature.org.uk/citation/citation_photo/1006538.pdf | accessdate=2007-03-03]

Demography

Until the late 1700s Horwich was a very small rural community. In the 1800s the population increased slowly with the introduction of various industries. However, the biggest change was with the building of the locomotive works in 1885 which completely changed the town out of recognition.Smith, M.D., (1988) "About Horwich," Nelson Brothers (ISBN 0-9508772-7-1)] Smith, M.D. (in collaboration with E.M. Brownlow), (1999) "More About Horwich," St. Michael's on Wyre: Wyre (ISBN 0-9526187-4-5)]

Economy

Horwich is home to a British Aerospace factory at Lostock, this was originally built about 1937 as a shadow factory for the de Havilland Airscrew Company manufacturing aircraft propellers. It once employed thousands of people but today under the MBDA nameplate it employs around 500.

Transport

The town is situated off junction 6 of the M61 motorway. The two main roads running through the town are the A673 and the B6226.

Horwich Railway Station closed to passenger traffic on 27th September 1965 [The Directory of Railway Stations, R V J Butt, Patrick Stephens Company 1995, ISBN 9781852605087] ; 34 years later Horwich Parkway Railway Station opened in 1999, adjacent to Reebok Stadium. The nearest railway station to much of Horwich (including the town centre), however, is Blackrod.

Manchester Airport is 1 hour away by train.

Frequent buses operate between Horwich and Bolton. The 575 is operated by Arriva and First Manchester, with Arriva services continuing to Wigan. Stagecoach North West provide services 125 and 126 between Preston and Bolton via Chorley, Adlington and Horwich.

Education

Notable people

*Vernon Kay - TV Presenter
*Bernard Wrigley - Actor/Comedian
*Paul Mariner - England Footballer

References

External links

* [http://www.horwich.gov.uk/ www.horwich.gov.uk] , Horwich Town Council.
* [http://www.1471atc.org.uk/ www.1471atc.org.uk] , 1471 (Horwich) Air Cadets.
* [http://www.horwichcarnivalraces.co.uk/ www.horwichcarnivalraces.co.uk] , Horwich Carnival Races.
* [http://www.horwichrmicc.co.uk/ www.horwichrmicc.co.uk] , Horwich Cricket Club.
* [http://www.horwichcc.co.uk/ www.horwichcc.co.uk] , Horwich Cycling Club.
* [http://www.horwichheritage.co.uk/ www.horwichheritage.co.uk] , Horwich Heritage.
* [http://www.horwichrmiharriers.co.uk/ www.horwichrmiharriers.co.uk] , Horwich RMI Harriers.
* [http://www.bolton.org.uk/horwich.html www.bolton.org.uk] , Photos of Horwich.


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