- Alexander Tairov
Alexander Tairov ( _ru. Александр Таиров; 1885-1950) was one of leading innovators of theatrical art, and one of the most enduring theatre directors in
Russia, and through the Sovietera.
Aleksandr Tairov was born Aleksandr Yakovlevich Korenblit on July 6,1885, in
Romny, Ukraine, Russian Empire. His father, YakovKorenblit, was the headmaster of a primary school in Berdichev. At theage of 10, young Tairov moved to Kievand settled with his aunt, a retiredactress. She introduced him to theatre. He took part in amateurperformances and assumed the name Tairov as a pseudonym.
In 1904 heenrolled in the
Law Schoolat Kiev University. That same year Tairov married his cousin,Olga. In 1905 Tairov opposed the pogroms of Jews in Kievand was arrested by the Tsar's police and imprisoned. His second arrestled him to a decision to move from Kiev to St. Petersburg.
In 1906 Tairov was invited by thefamous Russian actress
Vera Komissarzhevskayaand joined her theatre asan actor under directorship of Vsevolod Meyerhold. At the same time Tairov also continued hisstudies at the Law school of St. Petersburg University. There hestarted his life-long friendship with Anatoli Lunacharsky. Hecollaborated with Vsevolod Meyerhold on a joint production of a play by Paul Claudel.Both directors were creating new experimental models for theatre inRussia. Tairov felt that the work of Meyerhold's actors was dictated by the production concept and that the actors were mere puppets. Soon Tairov left to join Pavel Gaideburov's company where he was asked to direct.
Tairov created a prototype of his Chamber Theatre as "synthetictheatre" with high goals in mind. As director he experimented withstaging, acting, individual and group movements, stage and costumedesigns, and worked with every detail of theatrical performance inorder to break away from the traditional theatre. He established idealdiscipline at his
Chamber Theatre. Tairov's experimental approachspread to all phases of creating a stage show including even therehearsals and practice. He used the music of Ludwig van Beethovenand Frédéric Chopinas away of helping his actors achieve a special state of mind and develop a spiritual union in their scenes.
In 1912 Tairov was invited to direct a play in collaboration with theRussian Drama Theatre in
Riga. There he was once again attacked by thelocal anti-Semites and was banned by the local authorities from stayingand working in the city of Riga. The conflict took two weeks toresolve. Tairov prevailed, he stayed and completed his work for theRussian Drama Theatre in Riga. Upon his return to St. Petersburg,Tairov convertedto Evangelical Lutheranism.
In 1913 Tairov moved to
Moscow. There he joined a corporation ofattorneys at law and could continue a comfortable career. InsteadTairov established himself as important anti-realist director. HisChamber Theatre became the center of experimental creativity for manyRussian actors, artists, writers, and musicians. Tairov was the firstdirector in Russia to stage the The Threepenny Operaby Bertolt Brecht. He stagedplays of Valery Bryusov, Eugene O'Neill, J.B. Priestley, Oscar Wilde, and othercontemporary writers. Tairov collaborated with such artists as Alexandra Exter, Pavel Kuznetsov, Sergei Soudeikin, Mikhail Larionov, Natalya Goncharova, andothers. Tairov's Acting Studio became extremely popular among aspiringactors such as Vera Karalli, Alisa Koonen, Yevgeni Lebedev, and others. He workedwith composers Sergei Prokofiev, A. Aleksandrov, Georgi Sviridov, and Dmitri Kabalevsky.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Tairov continued development of his independentapproach to theatre. His early productions of the Soviet era were Salome by Oscar Wilde andAdrienne Lecouvrer, which became a legendary play and ran more than 800performances. Tairov's Chamber Theatre remained very popular and toured acrossthe
Soviet Union. The Chamber Theatre's tours of Europein 1923, and of South Americain 1930 were critically acclaimed as "a total victory ofthe famous Russian innovator and a genius of staging."
In 1929 Tairovproduced
Bagrovy Ostrov(The Crimson Island) by Mikhail Bulgakov. At that time Joseph Stalinbegan his total control of culture and labeled the playbourgeois. That was enough to trigger organized attacks on Tairov in the Soviet media.His next production of Vsevolod Vishnevskiy's Optimistic tragedy(1933) was criticized by Vyacheslav Molotovas a slander of Russian history. Tairov tried to defend his theatre, hestated that theatres must be established on the level of researchinstitutes. "Pavlov has an institute on which millions are spent. Stanislavskymust have an institute too", said Tairov. As a punishmentTairov's Chamber Theatre was sent to work in Siberia.
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
In August of 1941 Tairov joined the
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committeein Moscow. Itwas formed by the group of leading intellectuals to campaign againstthe Nazis during the Second World War. The Committee was headed by Solomon Mikhoels. Along with Tairov other prominent members were Emil Gilels, David Oistrakh, Samuil Marshak, Ilja Ehrenburg, and many other leading intellectuals in theSoviet Union. The main driving force of the Committee was representedby the group of Yiddishwriters such as Perets Markish, Lev Kvitko, DavidGofstein, Itsik Fefer, David Bergelson, and others. The JewishAnti-Fascist Committee provided over 45 million rubles to the Soviet Red Army. After the end of the Second World War it was denounced byJoseph Stalin, and many of its members were executed by the Soviet secretservice.
In 1946 the Soviet Communist Party launched attacks on intellectuals in theSoviet Union. Such leading cultural figures as
Anna Akhmatova, Sergei Prokofiev, Aram Khachaturyan, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Zoshchenkoand many others suffered from censorship and severerepressions. Tairov's Chamber Theatre was attacked for having little todo with contemporary Soviet life. Tairov tried to make additions torepertoire and invited writer Aleksandr Galich, and young director Georgi Tovstonogov, butit was too late. In May of 1949, the Soviet Committee for Arts issued official order toclose the theatre. Tairov's Chamber Theatre was accused of "Aesthetismand Formalism" and was destroyed by the decision of the Soviet government. Tairov wasgranted a personal pension and soon was hospitalized with brain cancer.He died on September 5, 1950, in Moscow, and was laid to rest in the Novodevichy Cemeteryin Moscow, Russia.
*1885 - Born Aleksandr Yakovlevich Korenblit, in Berdichev, Ukraine, Russian Empire.
*1995 - Moved to Kiev, attended theatrical performances
*1904 - Married his cousin, Olga.
*1905 - Experienced pogrom in Kiev.
*1906 - Moved to
St. Petersburgand became an actor on invitation from Vera Komissarzhevkaya.
*1907 - Directed plays in St. Petersburg in collaboration with
*1912 - Directed a play in Riga, where he was arrested by anti-semitic police.
*1913 - Tairov took up legal practice in
Moscow. Konstantin Mardzhanovinvited Tairov to join him in starting a theatre, but the venture folded after only a year.
*1914 - Tairov opened the
Kamerny Theatre, or Chamber Theatre, so named because he wanted to develop a select, appreciative audience.
*1918 - Meyerhold and Tairov collaborated on a production of "The Exchange" in February, but the production was a failure.
*1921 - Published aesthetic philosophy in "Notes of a Director".
*1923 - Tairov's acting school, which included classes such as improvisation, fencing, gymnastics, juggling, and theatre history, is granted official status. Also this year, the Kamerny Theatre tours to
Paris, Berlin, Frankfurt, and Dresden.
*1925 - Kamerny Theatre tours to
*1930 - Kamerny Theatre tours to Germany,
Prague, Vienna, Italy, Paris, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Performances include Oscar Wilde's " Salome", Alexander Ostrovsky's "Storm", Eugene O'Neill's " Desire Under the Elms", and Charles Lecocq's "Girofle-Girofla".
*1930s - Suffered accusation of formalism.
*1933 - Produced a socialist realist production of "Optimistic Tragedy".
*1935 - Awarded title of People's Artist.
*1936 - Accused of formalism.
*1937 - Merged with Okhlopkov's Realistic Theatre. This collaboration only lasted one year.
*1939 - Ten-month tour to Eastern Russia which included performances of "
Madame Bovary" and "The Bedbug". This tour may have saved Tairov from the purge.
*1941 - Kamerny Theatre was evacuated to
Siberiawhere they performed for two years.
*1945 - Received the
Order of Lenin.
*1949 - Kamerny Theatre closed. Tairov and his wife, actress
Alice Koonentransferred to the Vakhantangov Theatre.
*1950 - Tairov dies in September.
*1974 - Alice Koonen dies.
Tairov developed what he called "Synthetic Theatre" which incorporated ballet, opera, circus, music hall, and dramatic elements. He believed theatre was its own art and was not merely a means for transmitting literature. His productions were not subservient to their text. The acting school Tairov developed was to train a company of "master actors" who would excel in all of the elements of Synthetic Theatre and become the primary creators of performances. Tairov's productions employed Constructivist sets. One of his primary designers was Alexandra Exter who created sets and costumes for "Famira Kifared", "Salome" and "Romeo and Juliet". Her designs can be seen in the 1924 film "Aelita Queen of Mars" for which she used celluloid and metal for the Martian costumes.
Romeo and Juliet" - 1921
**This set, designed by Exter, employed seven bridges of various heights as well as rope ladders to depict the lovers' obstacles. The set was inlaid with mirrors which were later replaced with foil.
**This is the first of Tairov's productions in which emotion was the primary focus. Alice Koonen played Phaedra, and entered draped in a heavy purple cape of velvet. This image was contrasted with her appearance in a red cape for the confession scene. The set was modeled on the image of a listing ship with several off-kilter platforms.
*"Girofle-Girofla" - 1922
**This comic operetta is set around the confusion involving twins, both played by Koonen. The set was comprised of folding ladders, revolving mirrors, and trap doors.
The Man Who Was Thursday" - 1924
**Tairov staged this play by
Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky(1887-1950), based on G. K. Chesterton's fantastic novel, at the Kamerny theatre in Moscow. Chesterton lamented this "misreading" by the Russians several times later in life, most prominently in his 1936 autobiography.
*"Desire Under the Elms" - 1930
**The Moscow production was followed by a mock trial for Abbie and Eben. Tairov was a witness for the defense and legal experts and psychiatrists took part as well. The trial ended at 2am with the acquittal of the defendants. O'Neill saw the production when it toured to Paris and loved it.
*Compton, Susan A. "Alexandra Exter and the Dynamic Stage." Art in America 62.5 (1974): 100-3.
*Brockett,Oscar Gross. "Studies in Theatre and Drama; Essays in Honor of Hubert C. Heffner". The Hague: Mouton, 1972.
*Marshall, Herbert. "The Pictorial History of the Russian Theatre". New York: Crown Publishers, 1977.
*Roose-Evans, James. "Experimental Theatre from Stanislavsky to Today". New York: Universe Books, 1970.
*Tairov, Alexander. "Notes of a Director", Uniform Title: Zapiski Rezhissera. English. Coral Gables, Fla: University of Miami Press, 1969.
*Worrall, Nick. "Modernism to Realism on the Soviet Stage : Tairov-Vakhtangov-Okhlopkov". New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
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