- Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Maurice of Nassau
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange In office
Preceded by William the Silent Succeeded by Frederick Henry Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland In office
Preceded by William the Silent Succeeded by Frederick Henry Stadtholder of Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel In office
Preceded by Adolf van Nieuwenaar Succeeded by Frederick Henry Stadtholder of Groningen In office
Preceded by William Louis Succeeded by Ernst Casimir Personal details Born 14 November 1567
Died 23 April 1625(aged 57)
The Hague, Dutch Republic
Resting place Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, Netherlands, the resting place of his father, assassinated William the Silent and many other later members of the Orange Princes family till today.
Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567, Dillenburg – 23 April 1625) was sovereign Prince of Orange from 1618, on the death of his eldest half brother, Philip William, Prince of Orange, (1554–1618). Maurice was stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from earliest 1585 until his death in 1625.
Maurice was a son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony and was born at the castle of Dillenburg. He was named after his maternal grandfather, the Elector Maurice of Saxony, who was also a noted general.
Maurice never married but was the father of illegitimate children by Margaretha van Mechelen (including Willem of Nassau, lord of the Lek and Louis of Nassau, lord of den Lek and Beverweerd) and Anna van de Kelder. He was raised in Dillenburg by his uncle Johan of Nassau (Jan the Old).
Together with his cousin Willem Lodewijk he studied in Heidelberg and later with his eldest half brother Philip William, Prince of Orange in Leiden where he met Simon Stevin. The States of Holland and Zeeland paid for his studies, as their father had run into financial problems after spending his entire fortune in the early stages of the Dutch revolt.
Only 16 when his father was murdered in Delft in 1584, he soon took over as stadtholder (Stadhouder), though this title was not inheritable. The monarchs of England and France had been requested to accept sovereignty, but had refused. This had left Maurice as the only acceptable candidate for the position of Stadtholder. He became stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, of Guelders, Overijssel and Utrecht in 1590 and of Groningen and Drenthe in 1620 (following the death of Willem Lodewijk, who had been Stadtholder there and in Friesland).
Protestant Maurice was preceded as Prince of Orange (not a Dutch title) by his Roman Catholic eldest half-brother Philip William, Prince of Orange, deceased 1618. However, Philip William was in the custody of Spain, remaining so until 1596, and was thus unable to lead the Dutch independence cause.
Maria of Nassau (1556–1616), was a full sister of Philip William from the first marriage of William I, Prince of Orange, (assassinated 1584), to wealthy and powerful aristocrat Anna van Egmont, (1533–1558), and a furious contender to Maurice of Nassau.
He was appointed captain-general of the army in 1587, bypassing the Earl of Leicester, who returned to England on hearing these news.
Maurice organized the rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt. He reorganised the Dutch States Army together with Willem Lodewijk, studied military history, strategy and tactics, mathematics and astronomy, and proved himself to be among the best strategists of his age. The Eighty Years' War was a challenge to his style, so he could prove himself a good leader by taking several Spanish Outposts. Paying special attention to the siege theories of Simon Stevin, he took valuable key fortresses and towns: Breda in 1590, Steenwijk in 1592, and Geertruidenberg in 1593. These victories rounded out the borders to the Dutch Republic, solidifying the revolt and allowing a national state to develop behind secure borders. They also established Maurice as the foremost general of his time. Many of the great generals of the succeeding generation, including his brother Frederick Henry and many of the commanders of the English Civil War learned their trade under his command.
His victories in the cavalry battles at Turnhout (1597) and at Nieuwpoort (1600) earned him military fame and acknowledgment throughout Europe. Despite these successes, the House of Orange did not attain great respect among European Royalty, as the Stadtholdership was not inheritable.
The training of his army is especially important to early modern warfare. Previous generals had made use of drill and exercise in order to instill discipline or to keep the men physically fit, but for Maurice, they "were the fundamental postulates of tactics." This change affected the entire conduct of warfare, since it required the officers to train men in addition to leading them, decreased the size of the basic infantry unit for functional purposes since more specific orders had to be given in battle, and the decrease in herd behavior required more initiative and intelligence from the average soldier.
As part of his efforts to find allies against Spain, Maurice received Moroccan envoys such as Al-Hajari. They discussed about the possibility of an alliance between Holland, the Ottoman Empire, Morocco and the Moriscos, against the common enemy Spain. Al-Hajari's account mentions in detail the discussion for a combined offensive on Spain.
Maurice and Oldenbarnevelt
Maurice started out as the protégé of Landsadvocaat (Land's Advocate, a kind of secretary) Johan van Oldenbarnevelt. But gradually tensions rose between these two men. Against Maurice's advice, and despite his protests, Van Oldenbarnevelt decided to sign the Twelve Years' Truce with Spain, which lasted from 1609–1621. The required funds to maintain the army and navy, and the general course of the war were other topics of constant struggle.
With the religious troubles between Gomarists (Calvinists) and Arminians, the struggle between Van Oldenbarnevelt and Maurice reached a climax. Van Oldenbarnevelt was arrested, tried and decapitated despite numerous requests for mercy. From 1618 till his death Maurice now enjoyed uncontested power over the Republic. He expanded the Stadthouderlijk palace at the Binnenhof in the Hague. The Maurice Tower is nowadays part of the building complex of the Senate of the Netherlands.
In 1621 the war resumed, after a 12-year period of truces, and the Spanish, led by Ambrogio Spinola, had notable successes, including the siege of Breda, the old family residence of the Nassau's, in 1625.
Maurice died on 23 April 1625, with the siege still underway. Justin of Nassau surrendered Breda in June 1625 after a costly eleven-month siege.
Meanwhile, the Dutch also lost formerly occupied Baia de Todos os Santos, Salvador de Bahia, 12°48′S 38°38′W in Brazil, 1 May 1625, under the heavy attacks of the Spanish–Portuguese Fleet, commanded by the Captain General of the Spanish Navy, since 1617, Admiral Fadrique II de Toledo Osorio y Mendoza (Naples, Italy, May 1580 – 11 December 1634), 1st Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza, and, since 17 January 1624, Knight of the Order of Santiago.
Maurice's ancestors for three generations Maurice of Nassau Father:
William the Silent
William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
John V of Nassau-Dillenburg
Elisabeth of Hesse
Juliana of Stolberg
Botho VIII of Stolberg-Wernigerode
Anna of Eppstein-Königstein
Anna of Saxony
Maurice, Elector of Saxony
Henry IV, Duke of Saxony
Catherine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Agnes of Hesse
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Christine of Saxony
- The island nation of Mauritius, located in the Indian Ocean, was named after him. The island was named in the prince's honor by Dutch explorers in 1598 and was first settled by Dutch emigrants in 1638.
- In 1624, English explorer Henry Hudson named what is now known as the Hudson River the Mauritius River in honor of the prince.
- ^ Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 0155184733.
- ^ Anonymous. "Wapenbord van Prins Maurits met het devies van de Engelse orde van de Kouseband". From an exhibit of a painted woodcut of Maurice's Arms encircled by the Order of the Garter in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/zoeken/asset.jsp?id=NG-NM-10152&lang=en. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746.
- ^ Roberts, Michael. The Military Revolution 1560–1660 in Rogers, Clifford. The Military Revolution Debate, p. 14. ISBN 9780813320540
- ^ Roberts, op. cit. p. 15
- ^ The mirror of Spain, 1500–1700: the formation of a myth by J. N. Hillgarth p.210ff
- ^ Romania Arabica by Gerard Wiegers p.410
- ^ In the Lands of the Christians by Nabil Matar, p.37 ISBN 0145932289
Maurice of Nassau, Prince of OrangeCadet branch of the House of NassauBorn: November 14 1567 Died: 23 April 1625
- Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- John Lothrop Motley, "History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Synod of Dort". London: John Murray, 1860.
- John Lothrop Motley, "The Life and Death of John of Barenvelt". New York & London: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1900.
- Petrus Johannes Blok, "History of the people of the Netherlands". New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1898.
Regnal titles Preceded by
Prince of Orange
Baron of Breda
Political offices Preceded by
William of Orange
Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland
Adolf van Nieuwenaar
Stadtholder of Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel
Stadtholder of Groningen
Willem van Egmond · Willem van Egmond jr. · Filips van Croy · Willem van Egmond jr. · Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein · Jan V of Nassau-Vianden-Diez · Philip of Burgundy · Floris van Egmond · René of Châlon · Philip de Lalaing · Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn · Karel van Brimeu · Gillis van Berlaymont · John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg · Willem IV van den Bergh · Adolf van Nieuwenaar · Maurice of Nassau · Frederick Henry of Orange · William II of Orange · interregnum · William III of Orange · interregnum · William IV of Orange · William V of OrangeHugo van Lannoy · Willem van Lalaing · Gozewijn de Wilde · Jan van Lannoy · Lewis de Bruges · Wolfert VI van Borselen · Joost van Lalaing · Jan III van Egmond · Henry III of Nassau-Breda · Antoon van Lalaing · René of Châlon · Louis of Flanders · Maximilian II of Burgundy · William of Orange · Maximilian of Hennin · Philip of Noircarmes · William of Orange · Adolf van Nieuwenaar (Utrecht only) · Maurice of Nassau · Frederick Henry of Orange · William II of Orange · interregnum · William III of Orange · interregnum · William IV of Orange · William V of Orange
Stadtholders of Groningen
Cristoffel van Meurs • Jasper van Marwijck • Karel van Gelre • Ludolf Coenders • Georg Schenck van Toutenburg • Maximiliaan van Egmond • Jan van Ligne • Karel van Brimeu • Gillis van Berlaymont • Caspar van Robles • Georges van Lalaing • Francisco Verdugo • Willem Lodewijk • Maurice of Nassau • Ernst Casimir • Hendrik Casimir I • Frederick Henry of Orange • William II of Orange • Willem Frederik • Hendrik Casimir II • Johan Willem Friso of Orange • William IV of Orange • William V of Orange
Georg Schenck van Toutenburg · Maximiliaan van Egmond · Jan van Ligne · Karel van Brimeu · Gillis van Berlaymont · Caspar van Robles · Georges van Lalaing · Francisco Verdugo · Adolf van Nieuwenaar · Maurice of Nassau · Frederick Henry of Orange · William II of Orange · William III of Orange · William IV of Orange · William V of Orange
Christoph van Moers • Jasper van Marwijck • Charles, Duke of Guelders • Ludolf Coenders • Georg Schenck van Toutenburg • Maximiliaan van Egmond • Jan van Ligne • Karel van Brimeu • Gillis van Berlaymont • Caspar van Robles • Georges van Lalaing • Francisco Verdugo • Willem Lodewijk of Nassau-Dietz • Maurice of Nassau • Ernst Casimir • Hendrik Casimir I • Willem Frederik • Hendrik Casimir II • William II of Orange • William III of Orange • William IV of Orange • William V of Orange
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Maurice de Nassau — Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange – portrait de Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange (en néerlandais Maurits van Nassau) né le 14 novembre 1567, mort le 23 … Wikipédia en Français
Maurice De Nassau — Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange portrait de Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange (en néerlandais Maurits van Nassau) né le 14 novembre 1567, mort le 2 … Wikipédia en Français
Maurice de nassau — Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange portrait de Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice de Nassau, Prince d Orange (en néerlandais Maurits van Nassau) né le 14 novembre 1567, mort le 2 … Wikipédia en Français
MAURICE DE NASSAU — MAURICE DE NASSAU, prince d’Orange (1567 1625) stathouder de Hollande et de Zélande (1584 1625) À sa mort en 1584, Guillaume le Taciturne, stathouder de Hollande, laisse trois fils issus de trois de ses quatre mariages: Philippe, prisonnier des… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Maurice of Nassau — Prince of Orange 1567 1625; Du. statesman & military leader * * * Dutch in full Maurits, prince van Oranje, count van Nassau born Nov. 13, 1567, Dillenburg, Nassau died April 23, 1625, The Hague Dutch general and statesman. The son of William I… … Universalium
Maurice of Nassau — Prince of Orange 1567 1625; Du. statesman & military leader … English World dictionary
Prince of Orange — Coat of Arms of the city/town of Orange in the Vaucluse. They were granted to the city by the princes of Orange of the house of des Baux in the last quarter of the XIIth century. … Wikipedia
MAURICE OF NASSAU — Prince of Orange; one of the most famous generals of modern times, son of William the Silent, on whose assassination he was elected Stadtholder, and became by his prowess the liberator of the United Provinces from the yoke of Spain; his name… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Prince d'Orange — Principauté d Orange Pour les articles homonymes, voir Orange. La principauté d Orange était une principauté souveraine, presque entièrement enclavée dans le comté de Provence et ayant sa capitale dans la ville d Orange, dans l actuel département … Wikipédia en Français
Maurice of Nassau — biographical name 1567 1625 Prince of Orange Dutch general & statesman … New Collegiate Dictionary