List of oldest trees


List of oldest trees

Contents

Old Tjikko is a 9,550 year old Norway Spruce tree, located on Fulufjället Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden. It is the world's oldest living individual clonal tree.

There are three tables of trees, which are listed by age and species. The first table includes trees for which a minimum age has been directly determined, either through counting or cross-referencing tree rings or through radiocarbon dating. Many of these trees may be even older than their listed ages, but the oldest wood in the tree has rotted away. For some old trees, so much of the center is missing that their age cannot be directly determined. Instead, estimates are made based on the tree's size and presumed growth rate. The last table includes trees with these estimated ages. The middle table lists clonal colonies in which no individual tree trunks may be remarkably old but in which the organism as a whole is thought to be very old.

The record-holders for individual, non-clonal trees are Great Basin bristlecone pine trees from California and Nevada, in the United States. Through tree-ring cross-referencing, they have been shown to be almost 5,000 years old.

A clonal colony can survive for much longer than an individual tree. A colony of 47,000 quaking aspen trees (nicknamed "Pando"), covering 106 acres (43 ha) in the Fishlake National Forest of the United States, is considered one of the oldest and largest organisms in the world. The colony has been estimated to be 80,000 years old, although tree ring samples date individual, above-ground, trees at only an average of about 130 years.[1][2][3][4] A colony of Huon pine trees covering 1 hectare (2.5 acres) on Mount Read, Tasmania is estimated to be around 10,000 years old, as determined by DNA samples taken from pollen collected from the sediment of a nearby lake. Individual trees in this group date to no more than 4,000 years old, as determined by tree ring samples.[5]

Individual trees with verified ages

Name Age (years) Species Location Notes
Prometheus 4,862 Great Basin bristlecone pine
Pinus longaeva
Wheeler Peak, Nevada, United States Cut down in 1964.[6]
Methuselah 4,842 Great Basin bristlecone pine
Pinus longaeva
Inyo County, California, United States Oldest currently living tree.[6]
 ? 3,622 Patagonian cypress
Fitzroya cupressoides
Alerce Andino National Park, Los Lagos, Chile [6]
CBR26 3,266 Giant sequoia
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
D-21 3,220 Giant sequoia
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
D-23 3,075 Giant sequoia
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
CMC 3 3,033 Giant sequoia
Sequoiadendron giganteum
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
Scofield Juniper 2,675 Western Juniper
Juniperus occidentalis
Sierra Nevada, California, United States Dead.[6]
CB-90-11 2,435 Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine
Pinus aristata
central Colorado, United States [6]
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi 2,217 Sacred fig
Ficus religiosa
Anuradhapura, North Central Province, Sri Lanka A sapling from the historical Bodhi tree under which Buddha became enlightened. It was planted in 288 BC and is the oldest living human-planted tree in the world with a known planting date.[6]
 ? 2,200 Coast Redwood
Sequoia sempervirens
northern California, United States [6]
Bennett Juniper 2,200 Western Juniper
Juniperus occidentalis
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
SHP 7 2,110 Foxtail Pine
Pinus balfouriana
Sierra Nevada California, United States [6]
 ? 1,917 Subalpine Larch
Larix lyallii
Kananaskis, Alberta, Canada [6]
CRE 175 1,889 Foxtail Pine
Juniperus scopulorum
northern New Mexico, United States [6]
Miles Juniper 1,810 Western Juniper
Juniperus occidentalis
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
 ? 1,776 Sugi
Cryptomeria japonica
Yakushima Island, Japan [7]
ERE 1,670 Limber Pine
Pinus flexilis
northern New Mexico, United States [6]
RCR 1 1,666 Foxtail Pine
Pinus balfouriana
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
 ? 1,661 Limber Pine
Pinus flexilis
South Park, Colorado, United States [6]
KET 3996 1,659 Limber Pine
Pinus flexilis
Ketchum, Idaho, United States [6]
FL117 1,653 Northern Whitecedar
Thuja occidentalis
Ontario, Canada [6]
BBL 2 1,649 Foxtail Pine
Pinus balfouriana
Sierra Nevada, California, United States [6]
 ? 1,636 Nootka Cypress
Callitropsis nootkatensis
Vancouver Island, Canada [6]
BCK 69 1,622 Baldcypress
Taxodium distichum
Bladen County, North Carolina, United States [6]
FL101 1,567 Northern Whitecedar
Thuja occidentalis
Ontario, Canada [6]
 ? 1,542 Limber Pine
Pinus flexilis
central Colorado, United States [6]

Clonal trees

As with all long-lived plant and fungal species, no individual part of a clonal colony is alive (in the sense of active metabolism) for more than a very small fraction of the life of the entire clone. Some clonal colonies may be fully connected via their root systems, while most are not actually interconnected, but are genetically identical clones which populated an area through vegetative reproduction. Ages for clonal colonies, often based on current growth rates, are estimates.[8]

Name Age (years) Species Location Notes
Pando 80,000[9] - 1,000,000[10] Quaking aspen
Populus tremuloides
Fishlake National Forest, Utah, United States Covers 107 acres (0.43 km2) and has around 47,000 stems (average age 130 years), which continually die and are renewed by its roots. Is also the heaviest known organism, weighing 6,000 tonnes.
Jurupa Oak[11] 13,000[12] Palmer oak
Quercus palmeri
Jurupa Mountains, California, United States Quercus palmeri Engelm. = Quercus dunnii Kellogg.[12]
Old Tjikko 9,550 Norway spruce
Picea abies
Fulufjället National Park, Dalarna, Sweden The tree's stems live no more than 600 years, but its root system's age[13][14] was established using carbon dating and genetic matching.[15] Elsewhere in the Fulu mountains, 20 spruces have been found older than 8,000 years.[16]
Old Rasmus 9,500 Norway spruce
Picea abies
Härjedalen, Sweden [17]
 ? 3,000[18] - 10,000[19] Huon Pine
Lagarostrobos franklinii
Mount Read, Tasmania, Australia Several genetically identical males that have reproduced vegetatively. Although single trees in this stand may be around 3 to 4 thousand years old, the stand itself as a single organism has existed for 10,000 years.[5]

Old trees with estimated ages

Name Age (years) Species Location Notes
Llangernyw Yew 4,000 European yew
Taxus baccata
Llangernyw, Wales, United Kingdom [20]
Sarv-e-Abarkooh 4,000 Mediterranean cypress
Cupressus sempervirens
Abarkuh, Yazd, Iran Also called 'Zoroastrian Sarv'.[21][22]
Tisbury Yew Tree 4,000 European yew
Taxus baccata
Tisbury, England, United Kingdom [23]
Senator 3,500 Pond cypress
Taxodium ascendens
Longwood, Florida, United States [24]
Alishan Sacred Tree 3,000 Formosan cypress
Chamaecyparis formosensis
Alishan National Scenic Area, Chiayi, Taiwan Collapsed on July 1, 1997, following heavy rainstorms.[25]
Cormac's Tree 3,000 Olive
Olea europaea
Sardinia, Italy [26]
Patriarca da Floresta 3,000 Cariniana legalis Brazil Probably the oldest non-conifer in Brazil. Its name translates as 'Patriarch of the Forest'.
Oliveira de Santa Iria de Azóia 2,850 Olea europaea Santa Iria de Azóia, Portugal Magnific Olive tree, probably the last one from a big olive grove. Studied by UTAD University and now classified "Public interest tree" by the Portuguese National Forest Authority ; Tree ID
Unnamed 2,850 Oleaceae
Olea europaea L.
Loures, Lisboa, Portugal Alive.[27]
Kayano Ōsugi 2,300 Japanese cedar
Cryptomeria japonica
Yamanaka Onsen, Ishikawa, Japan Girth of 9.6 m. One of the four trees believed to be sacred in the precincts in a Shinto shrine. Its name translates as 'Great sugi of Kayano'.
Jōmon Sugi 2,170 - 7,200 Japanese cedar
Cryptomeria japonica
Yakushima, Japan Girth of 16.4 m. Exact dating is made difficult by the rotten core of the trunk. Its name is a reference to the Jōmon period of Japanese prehistory.[28][29][30]
Ballyconnell Yew 2,000 - 5,000 European yew
Taxus baccata
Ballyconnell, Annagh, Ireland Oldest tree in Ireland and possibly in Europe[citation needed].
Fortingall Yew 2,000 - 5,000 European yew
Taxus baccata
Fortingall, Perthshire, Scotland
Εlia Βouybōn 2,000 - 5,000 Olive
Olea europaea
Kolymvari, Crete, Greece Oldest olive tree in the world. Its name translates as 'Olive tree of Vouves'.[31]
Castagnu dê Centu Cavaddi 2,000 - 4,000 Sweet chestnut
Castanea sativa
Sicily Its name translates as the 'Hundred Horse Chestnut'.
Te Matua Ngahere 2,000 - 3,000 Kauri
Agathis australis
Waipoua Forest, Northland, New Zealand Oldest tree in New Zealand. Its name translates as 'Father of the Forest'.
Ankerwycke Yew 2,000 - 2,500 european yew
Taxus baccate
Ankerwyke Island, Berkshire, UK Historians agree this is the most obvious place for the signing of the Magna Carta on June 15 1215 [32]
Lady Liberty 2,000 Bald cypress
Taxodium distichum
Longwood, Florida, United States Sometimes called the 'Companion Tree' to 'Senator'.
S'khtorashen 2,000 Oriental plane
Platanus orientalis
Shusha, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Oldest tree in Azerbaijan. Its trunk is hollow. Also known as 'Sose's Tree'.
Stara Maslina 2,000 Olive
Olea europaea
Stari Bar, Bar Montenegro
The Pechanga Great Oak Tree 2,000 Coast live oak
Quercus agrifolia
Temecula, California, United States Oldest oak tree in the United States, possibly in the world.
 ? 2,000 Olive
Olea europaea
Tavira, Algarve, Portugal Oldest tree in Portugal.[33]
 ? 2,000 Olive
Olea europaea
Exo Hora, Zakynthos, Greece [34]
 ? 2,000 Yew
Taxus
Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia A grove known to possess several 2,000-year-old specimens.[35]
Granit oak 1,700 Pedunculate oak
Quercus robur
Granit, Plovdiv, Bulgaria This is not official; the oldest tree in Bulgaria is officially Baikushev's Pine, listed below.
Aubépines 1,500 Common hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna
Saint-Mars-sur-la-Futaie, Mayenne, France Oldest tree in France[citation needed].
Kongeegen 1,500 Pedunculate oak
Quercus robur
Jægerspris Nordskov, Zealand, Denmark
Angel Oak 1,500 Southern live oak
Quercus virginiana
Charleston, South Carolina, United States
Seven Sisters Oak 1,500 Southern live oak
Quercus virginiana
Mandeville, Louisiana, United States
Stelmužė Oak 1,500 Pedunculate oak
Quercus robur
Stelmužė, Zarasai, Lithuania Oldest tree in the Baltic states.
Jardine Juniper 1,500 Rocky Mountain juniper
Juniperus scopulorum
Logan Canyon, Utah, United States [36]
Árbol del Tule 1,433 - 1,600 Montezuma cypress
Taxodium mucronatum
Santa María del Tule, Oaxaca, Mexico Stoutest tree trunk in the world. Its name translates as the 'Tule Tree'.

See also

References

  1. ^ Grant, Michael C. (1993-10-01). "The Trembling Giant". Discover Magazine. http://discovermagazine.com/1993/oct/thetremblinggian285. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  2. ^ "Botanical Record-Breakers". W.P Armstrong. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0601.htm#massive. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  3. ^ "Quaking Aspen". National Park Service - Bryce Canyon. http://www.nps.gov/brca/naturescience/quakingaspen.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  4. ^ "SPECIES: Populus tremuloides". USDA - United States Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/poptre/all.html#BOTANICAL%20AND%20ECOLOGICAL%20CHARACTERISTICS. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  5. ^ a b "Native Conifers of Tasmania". Paks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania. http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/veg/pines.html. Retrieved 2008-05-06. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, OLDLIST, access date = July 3 2011
  7. ^ Suzuki and Tsukahara 1987, access date = August 7 2011
  8. ^ Gymnosperm Database (2 January 2007). "How Old Is That Tree?". http://www.conifers.org/topics/oldest.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  9. ^ Quaking Aspen by the Bryce Canyon National Park Service
  10. ^ Genetic Variation and the Natural History of Quaking Aspen, Mitton, J. B. & Grant, M. C. (1996). BioScience 46 (1): 25-31.
  11. ^ Connor, Steve (Science Editor), "At 13,000 years, tree is world's oldest organism", The Independent (newspaper), United Kingdom, December 23, 2009, online article December 22, 2009.
  12. ^ a b May, Michael R.; Provance, Mitchell C.; Sanders, Andrew C.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; and Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey, "A Pleistocene Clone of Palmer's Oak Persisting in Southern California", PLoS ONE, Vol. 4, Issue 12, December, 2009.
  13. ^ "Swedes find 'world's oldest tree'". BBC News. 2008-04-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7353357.stm. 
  14. ^ Owen, James (2008-04-14). "Oldest Living Tree Found in Sweden". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080414-oldest-tree.html. 
  15. ^ "World's oldest living tree discovered in Sweden". Swedish Research Council. 2008-04-16. http://www.idw-online.de/pages/de/news255795. 
  16. ^ Roger Highfield (2008-04-17). "World's oldest tree discovered in Sweden". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2008/04/17/eatree117.xml. 
  17. ^ Swedish dn.se
  18. ^ Oldest Living Tasmanian, The - The Huon Pine
  19. ^ Tasmanian Huon Pines
  20. ^ Joanna Billing (2004). "North Wales Coast and the Isle of Anglesey". The Hidden Places of Wales (3rd ed.). Travel Publishing. pp. 45–92. ISBN 9781904434078. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=o8NCt_7hltwC&pg=PT58. 
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, s.v. [1]
  22. ^ Earth watchers Center
  23. ^ http://www.visitwiltshire.co.uk/salisbury/about-the-area/south-wiltshire-towns-and-villages/tisbury-and-old-wardour-castle
  24. ^ Scheper, J.. "Florida's Big Tree". Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/tracks/TheSenator/page2.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  25. ^ Alishan Forest Recreation area has new "tree king"
  26. ^ Italian isolasardegnanet.it
  27. ^ http://www.cienciapt.net/pt/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104157&Itemid=302
  28. ^ Hobson, Jake (2007). Niwaki: Pruning, Training and Shaping Trees the Japanese Way. Timber Press. pp. 86. ISBN 978-0881928358. http://books.google.com/?id=dR9074_8QioC&pg=PA86&dq=%22jomonsugi%22. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  29. ^ Flora and Fauna Fact Sheet (Web Japan)
  30. ^ Miyazaki, Makoto. "The old men of the mountains". The Yomiuri Shimbun. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/columns/0005/lens190.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-15. 
  31. ^ The Olive Tree and Olive Oil Sfakia, Crete, Greece
  32. ^ Britian's Tree Story page 186
  33. ^ The oldest olive tree in Europe - Exceptional Trees on Waymarking.com
  34. ^ the-oldest-olive-tree pictures, videos and albums
  35. ^ О Кавказе
  36. ^ Jardine Juniper Trail

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