Local extinction


Local extinction

Local extinction is where a species (or other taxon) ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation. Local extinctions are contrasted with global extinctions.

Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations; wolf reintroduction is an example of this.

Conservation

Local extinctions mark a change in the ecology of an area.

The area of study chosen may reflect a natural subpopulation, political boundaries, or both. The Cetacean Specialist Group of the IUCN has assessed the threat of a local extinction of the Black Sea stock of Harbour Porpoise ("Phocoena phocoena") which touches six different countries. COSWIC, by contrast, investigate wildlife only in Canada, so assesses only the risk of a Canadian local extinction even for species which cross into the United States or other countries. Other subpopulations may be naturally divided by political or country boundaries.

Often a subpopulation of a species will also be a subspecies. For example, the recent disappearance of the Black Rhinoceros ("Diceros bicornis") from Cameroon spells not only the local extinction of rhinoceroses in Cameroon, but also the global extinction of the Western Black Rhinoceros ("Diceros bicornis longipes").

In at least one case, scientists have found a local extinction useful for research: In the case of the Bay Checkerspot, scientists, including Paul R. Ehrlich, chose not to intervene in a local extinction, using it to study the danger to the world populationHolsinger, Kent. " [http://darwin.eeb.uconn.edu/eeb310/lecture-notes/checkerspot/node4.html Local extinction] ". "Population Viability Analysis: Bay Checkerspot Butterfly". URL accessed August 11 2006.] However, similar studies are not carried out where a global population is at risk.

IUCN subpopulation and stock assessments

While the World Conservation Union (IUCN) mostly only categorizes whole species or subspecies, assessing the global risk of extinction, in some cases it also assesses the risks to stocks and populations, especially to preserve genetic diversity. In all, 119 stocks or subpopulations across 69 species have been assessed by the IUCN in 2006. [IUCN Red List, search for only stocks and subpopulations [http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/search.php?freetext=&modifier=phrase&criteria=wholedb&taxa_stock=1&Submit.x=0&Submit.y=0&redlistCategory%5B%5D=all&redlistAssessyear%5B%5D=all&country%5B%5D=all&aquatic%5B%5D=all&regions%5B%5D=all&habitats%5B%5D=all&threats%5B%5D=all] ]

Examples of stocks and populations assessed by the IUCN for the threat of local extinction:
* Marsh Deer (three subpopulations assessed)
* Blue Whale, North Pacific stock and North Atlantic stock
* Bowhead Whale, "Balaena mysticetus" (five subpopulation assessed), from Critically Endangered to LR/cd
* Lake Sturgeon, "Acipenser fulvescens", Mississippi & Missouri Basins subpopulation assessed as Vulnerable
* Wild Common carp, "Cyprinus carpio" (River Danube subpopulation)
* Black-footed Rock Wallaby "Petrogale lateralis" (MacDonnell Ranges subpopulation and Western Kimberly subpopulation)

The IUCN also lists countries where assessed species, subspecies or subpopulations are found, and from which countries they have been extirpated or reintroduced.

The IUCN has only three entries for subpopulations which have become extinct [IUCN Red List, search for extinct stocks and populations: [http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/search.php?freetext=&modifier=phrase&criteria=wholedb&taxa_stock=1&Submit.x=0&Submit.y=0&redlistCategory%5B%5D=EX&redlistCategory%5B%5D=EW&redlistAssessyear%5B%5D=all&country%5B%5D=all&aquatic%5B%5D=all&regions%5B%5D=all&habitats%5B%5D=all&threats%5B%5D=all] ] the Aral Sea stock of Ship Sturgeon ("Acipenser nudiventris"); the Adriatic Sea stock of Beluga ("Huso huso"); and the Mexican subpopulation of Wolf ("Canis lupus") which is extinct in the wild. No plant or fungi subpopulations have been assessed by the IUCN.

Local extinction events

Major environmental events, such as volcanic eruptions, may lead to large numbers of local extinctions, such as with the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, which led to a fern spike.

Paleontology

Paleontology often studies the replacement of one group of species with another, leading to the first group's local extinction.

See also

*Extinction
*List of extinct animals
*Threatened species

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Extinction (astronomy) — Extinction is a term used in astronomy to describe the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by matter (dust and gas) between an emitting astronomical object and the observer. Interstellar extinction also called Galactic… …   Wikipedia

  • Extinction vortex — Extinction vortices are a class of models through which conservation biologists, geneticists and ecologists can understand the dynamics of and categorize extinctions in the context of their causes. Developed by M. E. Gilpin and M. E. Soulé in… …   Wikipedia

  • Extinction — [ thumb|The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often cited example of modern extinction.cite book | last = Diamond | first = Jared | authorlink = Jared Diamond | title = Guns, Germs, and Steel | publisher = date = 1999|… …   Wikipedia

  • Extinction Du Permien — Intensité des extinctions marines à travers le temps. Le graphique bleu indique le pourcentage apparent (pas en nombre absolu) de genres d animaux marins ayant disparus au cours d un intervalle de temps. Il ne représente pas toutes les espèces… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction du Permien — Intensité des extinctions marines à travers le temps. Le graphique bleu indique le pourcentage apparent (pas en nombre absolu) de genres d animaux marins ayant disparus au cours d un intervalle de temps. Il ne représente pas toutes les espèces… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction du permien — Intensité des extinctions marines à travers le temps. Le graphique bleu indique le pourcentage apparent (pas en nombre absolu) de genres d animaux marins ayant disparus au cours d un intervalle de temps. Il ne représente pas toutes les espèces… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction Des Espèces — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Extinction. Les mécanismes de l évolution biologique Mécanismes non aléatoires …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction d'espèces — Extinction des espèces Pour les articles homonymes, voir Extinction. Les mécanismes de l évolution biologique Mécanismes non aléatoires …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction des especes — Extinction des espèces Pour les articles homonymes, voir Extinction. Les mécanismes de l évolution biologique Mécanismes non aléatoires …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Extinction des espèces — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Extinction. Les mécanismes de l évolution biologique Mécanismes non aléatoires  …   Wikipédia en Français