- Sugauli Treaty
The Sugauli Treaty (also spelled Segowlee and Segqulee) was signed on
December 2, 1815and ratified by March 4, 1816, between the British East India Companyand Nepal, which was a kingdom during that era. This ended the second British invasion of the Himalayan kingdom during the Anglo-Nepalese War(1814-1816). The signatory for Nepal was Raj Guru Gajaraj Mishra aided by Chandra Sekher Upadhyaya and the signatory for the Company was Lieutenant-Colonel Paris Bradshaw. The treaty called for territorial concessions on the part of Nepal, the establishment of a British representative in Kathmandu, and allowed Britain to recruit Gurkhas for military service. Nepal also lost the right to deploy any American or European employee in its service (earlier several French commanders had been deployed to train the Nepali army).
Under the treaty, about one-third of Nepalese territory was lost, including
Sikkim(whose Chogyals supported Britain in the Anglo-Nepalese War); territory to west of the Kali Riverlike Kumaon(present Indian state of Uttarakhand), Garhwal(present Indian state of Uttarakhand); some territories to the west of the Sutlej Riverlike Kangra (present day Himachal Pradesh); and much of the Terai Region. Some of the Terai Region was restored to Nepal in 1816 under a revision of the treaty and more territory was returned in 1865 to thank Nepal for helping to suppress the Sepoy Rebellion.
The British representative in Kathmandu was the first Westerner allowed to live in the kingdom. The first representative was
Edward Gardner, who was installed at a compound north of Kathmandu. That site is now called Lazimpat and is home to the British and Indian embassies. The Sugauli Treaty was superseded in December 1923 by a "treaty of perpetual peace and friendship," which upgraded the British resident to an envoy. A separate treaty was signed with India (independent by now) in 1950 which restored fresh relations between the two as independent countries.
List of treaties
* [http://www.nepalicongress.org.np/contents/nepal/treaties/2.php Treaty Text and Related Documents]
* [http://www.nepaldemocracy.org/documents/treaties_agreements/nep_india_open_border.htm Indian-Nepalese Border]
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