- Battle of San Marcial
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of San Marcial
August 31, 1813
commander1=Nicolas Jean Dieu Soult
strength1=18,000–55,000 [Gates, p.523]
strength2=16,000 [Gates, p.427]
casualties1=4,000 dead or woundedGates, p.428]
casualties2=2,500 dead or wounded
San Sebastiánin the aftermath of the Vitoria campaign and put the city under siege in July 1813, aiming to reduce the important coastal fortress while the French army retired east, nursing its wounds from Vitoria. San Sebastián and Pamplonasat on Wellington's flanks, guarding the approaches to the French border, and needed to be pried from French hands before the allies could pursue operations into France. However, it appears Wellington misjudged the resourcefulness and determination of the French garrisonand its talented commander, Brigadier General Louis Emmanuel Rey. British assaults sustained very bloody repulses, losing 600 killed in a July 26 attack. [Gates, p.395] Before Wellington could organize a new effort, news reached him that Soult had rebuilt the French field army and reappeared to the east—weeks earlier than Wellington had believed possible—and the allies broke off the siege to confront him. [Gates, p.396]
While Wellington faced off against Soult in the
Battle of the Pyrenees, General Graham maintained a blockade of San Sebastián and prepared for the resumption of the siege on August 26. A line of light fortificationswas put up to guard against a relief effort by Soult, and a strong cordonwas established up to the banks of the Bidassoa. In addition to the Anglo-Portuguese divisions at Vera, Lesaca, and Irun, this screen included the Spanish 3rd, 5th, and 7th divisions on the San Marcial heights, as well as two brigades of the 4th division in reserve (forming Freire's Fourth Spanish Army, or Army of Galicia). After four weeks of rest Soult was, in fact, preparing one last push toward San Sebastián, concentrating all his nine divisions at Ainhouefor an attack in the vicinity of San Marcial. Neither the French nor the Spanish troops were in perfect spirits; the French were demoralized by their recent retreats and their heart was not in the coming fight, while Freire's ragged troops, neglected by the Spanish commissariat, had not enjoyed full rationsin several days. [Glover, p.263] Behind them, the allied army was locked in a terrible struggle for San Sebastián that would cost it 2,376 dead and wounded on August 31 alone. [Glover, p.262]
Clouded by an early morning mist, seven French divisions crept toward the Bidassoa on August 31, fording the river under cover of their guns. The allied positions at Vera and Irun were surprised and overrun but not before alerting Freire, who drew his troops into a line on the heights. The Imperial columns lost all cohesion as they climbed over the difficult terrain, reaching Freire in a confused mass. [Gates, p.427] The Spaniards welcomed them with a scathing volley and, advancing with fixed bayonets, rolled Soult's leading divisions back down the hill.
Soult rallied the broken units at noon and committed fresh troops to a second assault on the heights, but the line of Spanish bayonets held firm against his final assault and the faltering French were badly beaten. Unable to keep his men from retreating back over the river, Soult ordered a withdrawal back to Irun and called off his offensive without having met a single red coat: When, in the last laps of battle, Freire requested reinforcements from the British to shore up his battered line, Wellington magnanimously replied, "As he has already won his victory, he should keep the honour of it for his countrymen alone." [Gates, p.428] San Sebastián fell after a fearful battle later that day, and Soult retreated onto French soil.
Combat of Vera
During the afternoon, a violent thunderstorm struck the area, bringing torrents of rain. By the time Maj-Gen
Bertrand Clausel's rearguard reached the fords over the Bidassoa, there were six feet of water over them. The rearguard commander, Maj-Gen Vandermaesen led 10,000 men upstream to Vera. The convert|50|yd|sing=on long bridge at Vera would only admit a column three or four men wide, but it was the only possible escape route. A 70-man company of the green-jacketed, rifle-armed 95th Foot under Captain Daniel Cadoux held the village with two sentries posted at the bridge. At 2:00 am on September 1, the French successfully rushed the bridge, but could go no farther. In the heavy rain, the muskets of the French would not fire so they had to resort to the bayonet. Meanwhile, the British riflemen were secure with dry gunpowder in loopholed buildings. Over and over, the French tried to rush the buildings at the end of the bridge, but they were mowed down in heaps by rifle fire.
Cadoux sent for assistance from a brigade of the
Light Divisionthat was camped a mile away. Incredibly, Maj-Gen John Byne Skerret refused to send help. Instead, he ordered Cadoux to withdraw. The captain refused to obey and held his post against repeated attacks. At length, Skerret repeated his order to withdraw. Cadoux, who had only lost his two sentries, reluctantly prepared to obey. However, it was now dawn, the rain had stopped and the gunpowder of the French was now dry. As the green-jackets abandoned the buildings, the French opened a terrific fire. Cadoux and 16 of his men were killed, while all the surviving officers and 43 rank and file fell wounded. Abandoning their artillery, the French filed over the now-undefended span to escape from the trap. Vandermaesen lay among the dead. [Glover, p 263-264]
The battle marked the end of Soult's once redoubtable fighting force: "war-weary and despondent, Soult's divisions had lost all heart and, except in a few inspired flashes, were never again to fight with their once customary skill and zeal." [Gates, p.429] The Spanish performance at San Marcial, together with that of José Zayas's Division at the
Battle of Albueraand General Castaños's army at the Battle of Bailen, were among their best efforts of the Peninsular War. The next action would be the Battle of the Bidassoa on October 7.
*Gates, David. "The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War." Da Capo Press 2001. ISBN 0-306-81083-2
*Glover, Michael. "The Peninsular War 1807-1814." Penguin Books 2003. ISBN 0-141-39041-7
Battle of the Pyrenees
Battle of the Bidassoa (1813)
Battle of Nivelle
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