- Kilo class submarine
Kilo class is the
NATOreporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. The original version of these vessels is designated in Russia Project 877 "Paltus" ( Turbot). There is also a more advanced version, which is designated in the west Improved Kilo and in Russia as Project 636 "Varshavyanka". The Kilo will be succeeded by the Lada class submarine, which began sea trials in 2005.
The boats are mainly intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Kilo class submarines can operate very quietly. Project 636, sometimes called by the US Navy "The Black Hole" for its uncanny ability to "disappear", is thought to be one of the quietest diesel-electric submarine classes in the world. [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/row/rus/877.htm]
Anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sonar sound waves of active sonar, which results in a reduction and distortion of the return signal. These tiles also help attenuate sounds that are emitted from the submarine, thus reducing the range by which the sub may be detected by
passive sonar. [ [http://www.brtsis.com/kilo.htm Kilo Class Submarines ] ]
The first submarine entered service in the
Soviet Navyin 1982, and submarines of these types are still in use with the Russian navy. By November 2006, 16 vessels were believed to be in active service and 8 vessels were thought to be in reserve. [http://www.warfare.ru/?linkid=1758&catid=307] Another 29 vessels have been exported to various countries:
* - 4 Kilo; "Rajs Hadi Mubarek" and "El Hadi Slimane", operational since 1987, refitted in 1990
* - 2 Kilo, 2 Improved Kilo, and 8 further Improved Kilo
* - 10 Kilo designated the Sindhughosh Class
* - 2 Improved Kilo on order in 2006, Scheduled to arrived at 2009
* - 3 Kilo [http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/kilo877/index.html]
* - has decided to buy Kilo-636 submarines. An order is expected soon.
* - has arranged to buy three Kilo-636 submarines at a cost of approximately $1 billion. [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/04/04/russia.venezuela.ap/index.html]
* - 1 Kilo - (The ORP "Orzel")
* - 1 Kilo - ( The Dolphin )
* - 16 Kilos in active service, 8 in reserve.
There are several variants of the Kilo class, and these specifications may not apply to all variants. The figures given below should be regarded as rough estimates.
** 2,300-2,350 tons surfaced
** 3,000-4,000 tons submerged
** Length: 70-74 meters
** Beam: 9.9 meters
** Draft: 6.2-6.5 meters
* Maximum speed
** 10-12 knots surfaced
** 17-25 knots submerged
* Propulsion: Diesel-electric 5,900 shp
* Maximum depth: 300 meters (240-250 meters operational)
** convert|400|nmi|km|-2 at convert|3|kn|km/h|0 submerged
** convert|6000|nmi|km|-3 at convert|7|kn|km/h|0 snorkeling (7,500 miles for the Improved Kilo class)
** 45 days sea endurance
** Air defence: 8
SA-N-8 Gremlinor SA-N-10 Gimlet[cite web
title= Project 877 Kilo class Project 636 Kilo class Diesel-Electric Torpedo Submarine Specifications
Surface-to-air missiles (export submarines may not be equipped with air defense weapons)
** Six 533 mm torpedo tubes with 18
53-65ASuW or TEST 71/76ASW torpedoes or VA-111 Shkvalsupercavitating "underwater missiles", or 24 DM-1mines,
* Crew: 52
* Price per unit is 200 - 250 million $ (China paid approx. 1,5 - 2 billion $ for 8 Project 636 Kilo class submarines)
* INS "Sindhurakshak" - an Indian submarine of the Kilo class
* Patrick Robinson - author of the novels "Nimitz Class" and "Kilo Class"; both describe hypothetical situations involving Kilo class submarines, though lacking credible detail. The Kilo is portrayed in many of Robinson's other novels, where the ships' stealth may be overemphasized.
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