Failure causes


Failure causes

Failure causes are defects in design, process, quality, or part application, which are the underlying cause of a failure or which initiate a process which leads to failure. Where failure depends on the user of the product or process, then human error must be considered.

Contents

Component failure

A part failure mode is the way in which a component fails "functionally" on component level. Often a part has only a few failure modes. Thus a relay may fail to open or close contacts on demand. The failure mechanism that caused this can be of many different kinds, and often multiple factors play a role at the same time. They include corrosion, welding of contacts due to an abnormal electrical current, return spring fatigue failure, unintended command failure, dust accumulation and blockage of mechanism, etc. Seldom only one cause (hazard) can be identified that creates system failures. The real root causes can in theory in most cases be traced back to some kind of human error, e.g. design failure, operational errors, management failures, maintenance induced failures, specification failures, etc.

The (end) or immediate effects of failures can also be diverse depending on the function in the system. So the relay failure might result in a failure (actually a fault) to activate a locking actuator. This is called the sub system effect or sub system functional failure mode. And finally this might result in severe damage to system (the end effect) due to the loss of a protection device. When dealing with causes -> mechanisms -> failure modes -> effects, then it should be realised that all this depends on what system level is looked at. An effect from lower level can be a cause on a higher level. It all depends on the scope of scenario of interest.

Failure scenario

A scenario is the complete identified possible sequence and combination of events, failures (failure modes), conditions, system states, leading to an end (failure)system state. It starts from causes (if known) leading to one particular end effect (the system failure condition). A failure scenario is for a system the same as the failure mechanism is for a component. Both result in a failure mode (state) of the system / component.

Rather than the simple description of symptoms that many product users or process participants might use, the term failure scenario / mechanism refers to a rather complete description, including the preconditions under which failure occurs, how the thing was being used, proximate and ultimate/final causes (if known), and any subsidiary or resulting failures that result.

The term is part of the engineering lexicon, especially of engineers working to test and debug products or processes. Carefully observing and describing failure conditions, identifying whether failures are reproducible or transient, and hypothesizing what combination of conditions and sequence of events led to failure is part of the process of fixing design flaws or improving future iterations. The term may be applied to mechanical systems failure.

Mechanical failure

Some types of mechanical failure mechanisms are: excessive deflection, buckling, ductile fracture, brittle fracture, impact, creep, relaxation, thermal shock, wear, corrosion,[1] stress corrosion cracking, and various types of fatigue.[2] Each produces a different type of fracture surface, and other indicators near the fracture surface(s). The way the product is loaded, and the loading history are also important factors which determine the outcome. Of critical importance is design geometry because stress concentrations can magnify the applied load locally to very high levels, and from which cracks usually grow.

Over time, as more is understood about a failure, the failure cause evolves from a description of symptoms and outcomes (that is, effects) to a systematic and relatively abstract model of how, when, and why the failure comes about (that is, causes).

The more complex the product or situation, the more necessary a good understanding of its failure cause is to ensuring its proper operation (or repair). Cascading failures, for example, are particularly complex failure causes. Edge cases and corner cases are situations in which complex, unexpected, and difficult-to-debug problems often occur.

Failure by corrosion

Materials can be degraded by their environment by corrosion processes, such as rusting in the case of iron and steel. Such processes can also be affected by load in the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and environmental stress cracking.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While corrosion is not technically a mechanical failure mode, it is usually included in mechanical failure modes because it leads directly to mechanical failures.
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=B2aAPVa1TloC&pg=PA2

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Failure mode and effects analysis — A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by severity or determination of the effect of failures on the system. It is widely used in manufacturing… …   Wikipedia

  • Failure in the intelligence cycle — or intelligence failure, while never defined in texts, can be understood to be the outcome of the inadequacies within the intelligence cycle. The intelligence cycle itself consists of six steps that are constantly in motion. The six steps are:… …   Wikipedia

  • Failure analysis — is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure. It is an important discipline in many branches of manufacturing industry, such as the electronics industry, where it is a vital tool used in the development of… …   Wikipedia

  • failure — failure, neglect, default, miscarriage, dereliction are comparable when they mean an omission on the part of someone or something of what is expected or required oj him or of it. Failure basically implies a being found wanting; it implies a lack… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Causes of landslides — The causes of landslides are usually related to instabilities in slopes. It is usually possible to identify one or more landslide causes and one landslide trigger. The difference between these two concepts is subtle but important. The landslide… …   Wikipedia

  • Failure to thrive — Infobox Symptom Name = Failure to thrive Caption = ICD10 = ICD10|R|62|8|r|50 ICD9 = ICD9|783.7 ICDO = OMIM = DiseasesDB = MedlinePlus = 000991 eMedicineSubj = ped eMedicineTopic = 738Failure to thrive (FTT) is a medical term which denotes poor… …   Wikipedia

  • Causes of the Iranian Revolution — The Iranian Revolution had a number of significant features. It produced profound change at great speed; [Amuzegar, Jahangir, The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution, SUNY Press, p.10] and replaced an ancient monarchy with a theocracy based on… …   Wikipedia

  • Failure, heart — Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically, failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency. When this occurs, the heart is unable to provide adequate blood flow to other organs such as the brain, liver… …   Medical dictionary

  • Failure theory (material) — v · d · e Materials failure modes Buckling · Corro …   Wikipedia

  • Causes of the Great Depression — The causes of the Great Depression are still a matter of active debate among economists. The specific economic events that took place during the Great Depression have been studied thoroughly: a deflation in asset and commodity prices, dramatic… …   Wikipedia