- Sodium fluoride
Sodium fluoride Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider UNII EC number UN number 1690 KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number WB0350000 ATC code A01 Properties Molecular formula NaF Molar mass 41.988713 g/mol Appearance White solid Odor odorless Density 2.558 g/cm3 Melting point
Solubility in water 0.5 M (20 °C) Solubility soluble in HF
insoluble in ethanol
Vapor pressure 1 mmHg @ 1077 C° Hazards MSDS Sodium fluoride MSDS EU Index 009-004-00-7 EU classification Toxic (T)
R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable LD50 52–200 mg/kg (oral in rats, mice, rabbits) Related compounds Other anions Sodium chloride
Other cations Lithium fluoride
Related compounds TASF reagent (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Sodium fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula NaF. A colorless solid, it is a source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. Sodium fluoride is less expensive and less hygroscopic than the related salt potassium fluoride.
Structure, general properties, occurrence
Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound, dissolving to give separated Na+ and F− ions. Like sodium chloride, it crystallizes in a cubic motif where both Na+ and F− occupy octahedral coordination sites.
NaF is prepared by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid or hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), byproducts of the production of superphosphate fertilizer. Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Alcohols are sometimes used to precipitate the NaF:
- HF + NaOH → NaF + H2O
From solutions containing HF, sodium fluoride precipitates as the bifluoride salt NaHF2. Heating the latter releases HF and gives NaF.
- HF + NaF ⇌ NaHF2
In a 1986 report, the annual worldwide consumption of NaF was estimated to be several million tonnes.
Fluoride salts are used to enhance the strength of teeth by the formation of fluorapatite, a naturally occurring component of tooth enamel. Although sodium fluoride is also used to fluoridate water and, indeed, is the standard by which other water-fluoridation compounds are gauged, hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used additives in the U.S. Toothpaste often contains sodium fluoride to prevent cavities. Alternatively, sodium fluoride is used as a cleaning agent, e.g. as a "laundry scour". A variety of specialty chemical applications exist in synthesis and extractive metallurgy. It reacts with electrophilic chlorides including acyl chlorides, sulfur chlorides, and phosphorus chloride. Like other fluorides, sodium fluoride finds use in desilylation in organic synthesis. The fluoride is the reagent for the synthesis of fluorocarbons.
In medical imaging, fluorine-18-labelled sodium fluoride is used in positron emission tomography (PET). Relative to conventional bone scintigraphy carried out with gamma cameras or SPECT systems, PET offers more sensitivity and spatial resolution. A disadvantage of PET is that fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride is less widely available than conventional technetium-99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.
The lethal dose for a 70 kg (154 lb) human is estimated at 5–10 g. Sodium fluoride is classed as toxic by both inhalation (of dusts or aerosols) and ingestion. In high enough doses, it has been shown to affect the heart and circulatory system.
In the higher doses used to treat osteoporosis, plain sodium fluoride can cause pain in the legs and incomplete stress fractures when the doses are too high; it also irritates the stomach, sometimes so severely as to cause ulcers. Slow-release and enteric-coated versions of sodium fluoride do not have gastric side effects in any significant way, and have milder and less frequent complications in the bones. In the lower doses used for water fluoridation, the only clear adverse effect is dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of children's teeth during tooth development; this is mostly mild and is unlikely to represent any real effect on aesthetic appearance or on public health.
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- ^ "Chemical and physical information" (PDF), Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATDSR), September 2003, pp. 187, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp11.pdf, retrieved 2008-11-01
- ^ (PDF) Mineral Handbook, Mineral Data Publishing, 2005, http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/villiaumite.pdf.
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- ^ Bourne, Geoffrey Howard (1986), Dietary research and guidance in health and disease, Karger, p. 153, ISBN 3-805-5434-17, http://books.google.com/?id=OW0gAAAAMAAJ , Snippet view from page 153
- ^ Klein, Cornelis; Hurlbut, Cornelius Searle; Dana, James Dwight (1999), Manual of Mineralogy (21 ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0-471-31266-5
- ^ Division of Oral Health, National Center for Prevention Services, CDC (1993) (PDF), Fluoridation census 1992, http://cdc.gov/fluoridation/pdf/statistics/1992.pdf, retrieved 2008-12-29.
- ^ "Sodium fluoride, Molecule of the week". American Chemical Society. 2008-02-19. http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=841&content_id=WPCP_008239&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
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- ^ National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia). A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation [PDF]. 2007. ISBN 1864964154. Summary: Yeung CA. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation. Evid Based Dent. 2008;9(2):39–43. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400578. PMID 18584000. Lay summary: NHMRC, 2007.
NaAlO2 · NaBH3(CN) · NaBH4 · NaBr · NaBrO3 · NaCH3COO · NaCN · NaC6H5CO2 · NaC6H4(OH)CO2 · NaCl · NaClO · NaClO2 · NaClO3 · NaClO4 · NaF · NaH · NaHCO3 · NaHSO3 · NaHSO4 · NaI · NaIO3 · NaIO4 · NaMnO4 · NaNH2 · NaNO2 · NaNO3 · NaN3 · NaOH · NaO2 · NaPO2H2 · NaReO4 · NaSCN · NaSH · NaTcO4 · NaVO3 · Na2CO3 · Na2C2O4 · Na2CrO4 · Na2Cr2O7 · Na2MnO4 · Na2MoO4 · Na2O · Na2O2 · Na2O(UO3)2 · Na2S · Na2SO3 · Na2SO4 · Na2S2O3 · Na2S2O4 · Na2S2O5 · Na2S2O6 · Na2S2O7 · Na2S2O8 · Na2Se · Na2SeO3 · Na2SeO4 · Na2SiO3 · Na2Te · Na2TeO3 · Na2Ti3O7 · Na2U2O7 · NaWO4 · Na2Zn(OH)4 · Na3N · Na3P · Na3VO4 · Na4Fe(CN)6 · Na5P3O10 · NaBiO3
Stomatological preparations (A01) Caries prophylactic agents Anti-infectives and antisepticsAmphotericin B • Benzoxonium chloride • Chlorhexidine • Chlortetracycline • Clotrimazole • Domiphen bromide • Doxycycline • Eugenol • Hexetidine • Hydrogen peroxide • Mepartricin • Metronidazole • Miconazole • Minocycline • Natamycin • Neomycin • Oxyquinoline • Polynoxylin • Sodium perborate • Tetracycline • Tibezonium iodide Corticosteroids (Glucocorticoids) Other Mineral supplements (A12) Calcium Potassium Sodium Zinc Magnesium FluorideSodium fluoride# • Sodium monofluorophosphate Selenium
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sodium fluoride — n a poisonous crystalline salt NaF that is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water, toothpastes, and oral rinses and in metallurgy, as a flux, as an antiseptic, and as a pesticide see LURIDE * * * a salt of sodium used to… … Medical dictionary
sodium fluoride — n. a colorless, toxic, crystalline powder, NaF, with many uses, esp. as an insecticide, in making glass, and, in minute quantities, in toothpaste and to fluoridate public water supplies … English World dictionary
sodium fluoride — noun a colorless crystalline salt of sodium (NaF) used in fluoridation of water and to prevent tooth decay • Hypernyms: ↑salt * * * noun : either of two poisonous crystalline salts usually made by reaction of hydrofluoric acid with soda ash: a … Useful english dictionary
sodium fluoride — natrio fluoridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė NaF atitikmenys: angl. sodium fluoride rus. натрий фтористый; натрия фторид … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
sodium fluoride — a salt of sodium used to prevent tooth decay. It is administered by mouth or applied to the teeth as a paste, mouthwash, or gel. Taken in excess by mouth, it may cause digestive upsets and large doses may cause fluorine poisoning. See also… … The new mediacal dictionary
sodium fluoride — noun Date: 1869 a poisonous crystalline salt NaF that is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water and toothpastes, in metallurgy, as a flux, and as a pesticide … New Collegiate Dictionary
sodium fluoride — a colorless, crystalline, water soluble, poisonous solid, NaF, used chiefly in the fluoridation of water, as an insecticide, and as a rodenticide. [1900 05] * * * … Universalium
sodium fluoride — noun The salt NaF, used in the fluoridation of water … Wiktionary
sodium fluoride — so′dium fluor′ide n. chem. a colorless, crystalline, water soluble, poisonous solid, NaF, used chiefly in the fluoridation of water, as an insecticide, and as a rodenticide • Etymology: 1900–05 … From formal English to slang
sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel — [USP] a fluoride containing preparation, consisting of sodium fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and phosphoric acid, with concentrations of 1.23 per cent fluoride ion and 0.98 per cent phosphoric acid, pH of 3.0 to 3.5, and flavoring, coloring,… … Medical dictionary