Name = Honokiol
ImageFile = honokiol.png
IUPACName = 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)- 4-prop-2-enyl-phenol
OtherNames = houpa, hnk
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
SMILES = C=CCC1=CC(=C(C=C1)O)C2=CC (=C(C=C2)O)CC=C
CASNo = 35354-74-6
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C18H18O2
MolarMass = 266.334 g/mol
Appearance = White solid
Solubility = sparingly (25 °C)
Section8 = Chembox Other
diethylstilbestrol, dihydroxyeugenol, resorcinol
Honokiol (C18H18O2) is a biphenolic compound present in the cones, bark, and leaves of "
Magnoliagrandifloris" that has been used in the traditional Japanese medicine "Saiboku-to" as an anxiolytic, anti-thrombotic, anti-depressant, anti-emetic, and anti-bacterial. While early research on the effective compounds in traditional remedies have simply used whole magnolia bark extracts, known as houpu magnolia, recent work has identified honokiol and its structural isomer magnololas the active compounds in magnolia bark. In the late 1990's, honokiol saw a revival in western countries as a potent and highly tolerable anti-tumorigenicand neurotrophiccompound.
Honokiol has shown pro-
apoptoticeffects in melanoma, sarcoma, myeloma, leukemia, bladder, lung, prostate, and colon cancercell lines1-4. Honokiol inhibits phosphorylation of Akt, p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), and src. Additionally, honokiol modulates the nuclear factor kappa beta(NfKB) activation pathway, an upstream effector of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2), and MCL1, all significant pro- angiogenicand survival factors. Honokiol induces caspase-dependent apoptosisin a TRAIL-mediated manner, and potentiates the pro-apoptotic effects of doxorubicinand other etoposides. So potent is honokiol's pro-apoptotic effects that it overcomes even notoriously drug resistant neoplasms such as multiple myeloma and chronic B-cell leukemia.
Honokiol has been shown to promote
neuriteoutgrowth and have neuroprotectiveeffects in ratcortical neurons. Additionally, honokiol increases free cytoplasmic Ca2+ in rat cortical neurons5.
Honokiol inhibits platelet aggregation in rabbits in a dose-dependent manner, and protects cultured RAEC against oxidized low density
lipropteininjury. Honokiol significantly increases the prostacyclinmetabolite 6-keto-PGF1alpha, potentially the key factor in honokiol's anti-thrombotic activity6.
Several methods for purifying honokiol have been utilized. As honokiol exists naturally with its structural isomer
magnolol, which differs from honokiol only by the position of one hydroxyl group, purification has often been limited to a HPLCor electromigration. However, methods developed in 2006 by workers in the lab of Jack L. Arbiser, took advantage of the proximity of the phenolic hydroxyl groups in magnolol, which form a protectable diol, to generate a magnolol acetonide(Figure 1), with a subsequent simple purification via flash chromatographyover silica7.
"Magnolol and Honokiol are normally inseparable. Honokiol is easily separable from the protected magnolol acetonide"
The synthesis of pure honokiol (Figure 2) involves a Pd-catalyzed Myaura-Suzuki coupling, but this synthesis has afforded only moderate yields8. An older synthetic method involves reaction of
quinol-acetates with the Grignard reagentfollowed by claisen rearrangement9.
"Synthetic scheme for total synthesis of honokiol utilizing Pd-catalzyed Suzuki-coupling."
1. Shigemura K, Arbiser JL, Sun SY, Zayzafoon M, Johnstone PA, Fujisawa M, Gotoh A, Weksler B, Zhau HE, Chung LW. Honokiol, a natural plant product, inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells. Cancer. 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1279-89.
2. Ishitsuka K, Hideshima T, Hamasaki M, Raje N, Kumar S, Hideshima H, Shiraishi N, Yasui H, Roccaro AM, Richardson P, Podar K, Le Gouill S, Chauhan D, Tamura K, Arbiser J, Anderson KC. Honokiol overcomes conventional drug resistance in human multiple myeloma by induction of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Blood. 2005 Sep 1;106(5):1794-800. Epub 2005 May 3.
3. Battle TE, Arbiser J, Frank DA. The natural product honokiol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. Blood. 2005 Jul 15;106(2):690-7. Epub 2005 Mar 31.
4. Bai X, Cerimele F, Ushio-Fukai M, Waqas M, Campbell PM, Govindarajan B, Der CJ, Battle T, Frank DA, Ye K, Murad E, Dubiel W, Soff G, Arbiser JL. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 12;278(37):35501-7. Epub 2003 Jun 19.
5. Fukuyama Y, Nakade K, Minoshima Y, Yokoyama R, Zhai H, Mitsumoto Y. Neurotrophic activity of honokiol on the cultures of fetal rat cortical neurons. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002 Apr 22;12(8):1163-6
6. Hu H, Zhang XX, Wang YY, Chen SZ. Honokiol inhibits arterial thrombosis through endothelial cell protection and stimulation of prostacyclin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005 Sep;26(9):1063-8.
7. Amblard F, Delinsky D, Arbiser JL, Schinazi RF. Facile purification of honokiol and its antiviral and cytotoxic properties. J Med Chem. 2006 Jun 1;49(11):3426-7.
8. Esumi T, Makado G, Zhai H, Shimizu Y, Mitsumoto Y, Fukuyama Y. Efficient synthesis and structure-activity relationship of honokiol, a neurotrophic biphenyl-type neolignan. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 17;14(10):2621-5.
9. Takeya, Tetsuya; Okubo, Toru; Tobinaga, Seisho. Showa Coll. Pharm. Sci., Tokyo, Japan. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (1986), 34(5), 2066-70.
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