- Fire pot
A fire pot is a container, usually earthenware, for carrying fire. Fire pots have been used since prehistoric times to transport fire from one place to another, for warmth while on the move, for cooking, in religious ceremonies and even as weapons of war. We imagine the soldier who was blessed before his departure to war by priests swinging censers of incense, who was carried to the front by a steam-driven train, who warmed his hands before the stove on which his last meal was cooked, only to be killed by an incendiary shell. In a few short hours this unfortunate was comforted, assisted and destroyed by the descendants of fire pots.
Fire, one of the four classical elements was vital to the development of
civilization.Once humans had learned to contain, control and sustain fires, they had an invaluable tool for cookingfood that would otherwise have been indigestible, for sharpening spears, for hollowing out canoes, for baking potteryand for many other uses including simply keeping warm.
At first, humans would have relied on natural fires caused by lightening, learning to prolong the life of these fires by feeding fuel as the fire died down. But such fires would have been rare and would not have lasted long. At some point, humans discovered how to make fires by igniting
tinderfrom sparks caused by striking stones together, or by using a bow drillor similar way of creating fire through friction.
Creating fire can be tedious process. Eventually, humans began to use
earthenwarevessels, or fire pots, in which slow-burning fires could by kept alight indefinitely by adding small quantities of fuel as needed. Nomadicpeople could carry these small fires with them, using them to start larger fires for their evening camps.Fire pots were in use at least 10,000 years ago, as evidenced by finds in 1936-37 in Fells Cave [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fell/hd_fell.htm Tedesco, Laura Anne. "Fell's Cave (9000–8000 B.C.)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000] ] in the valley of the Rio Chico, not far from the Strait of Magellan. Fire pots appear to have been developed independently and at different times in many locations.
Semi-nomadic people, or people in contact with more settled people, would have made or acquired the more advanced forms of firepot. A portable clay fire pot is most useful while on the move, but it is most easily made by sedentary people accustomed to working with clay and kilns.
Portable fire pots have long been used as a source of warmth.
A Kangdi [ [http://www.indiaprofile.com/people/kangdi.htm Sleeping with Kangdi] ] is a traditional earthen fire pot from Kashmir, used to warm the hands or feet.In Kashmir, in winter, people usually wear a "Phiran" or long woolen gown over their normal dress. To keep the inside of the Phiran warm, they sometimes use a Manann, a fire-pot made of clay. But with no insulation on its clay handles, the Manann is inconvenient.
A Kangdi is an improved version of the Manann, a semi-spherical clay pot enclosed in willow rushes, with handles also made of willow rushes. The pot holds burning coals that stay warm throughout the day. Throughout Kashmir in winter, it is common to see people with one hand holding their Kangdi inside their Phiran, doing the daily chores with the other.
The fire pot was probably invented long after people discovered the value of cooking over fire.Once fire-proof containers became available, such as iron pots, it was natural to design fire pots that both heated and supported the cooking vessel.Over time, these developed into
stoves, used both for cooking and heating.
An earthenware fire-pot or indigenous stove found in West Africa [Historical Archaeology in Nigeria by Kit W. Wesler, P. Allsworth-Jones: Africa World Press, 1998] , notably in Ilora and Oyo, an Adogan has a flat bottom with a carinated wall and an out-turned rim with three decorated lugs to support the cooking pot. A U-shaped hole is cut in one side to allow air to enter, and through which fuel is inserted.
Hanging Fire pots
Unlike the other uses of the word in this article, the hanging fire pot does not contain the fire,but hangs from a hook above the fire.It is an ideal implement for cooking soup or stews that do not need precisely controlled temperatures or cooking times. The cook could throw in the basic ingredients, light a fire under the pot, then forget about it except for making sure that the fire was still going.
Goulashwas traditionally made in this way, prepared by cowherds in a "bogrács" ( cauldron) that hung on a tripod over a fire in the field. Started early, the soup/stew would be ready by mid-day.
In modern times, electric crock pots, as well as simple stock pots on the stove have replaced the need for a hanging fire pot while adding a degree of flexibility and safety to the soup-making procedure.
Chinese Hot pot
Hot pot or Huoguo (Simplified Chinese: 火锅) is a traditional Chinese social meal. The literal Chinese translation is fire pot, as huo means fire, while guo refers to pot. Hot pot is also called Chinese Steamboat.
Hot potconsists of a simmering metal pot of stock at the center of the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, thinly sliced ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table. This type of cuisine is referred to as "steamboat". In Western cooking, the fondueis used in a similar way, although usually with different ingredients.
Small earthen pots filled with combustibles, were used as
early thermal weaponsduring the classical and medieval periods.Containers made at first from clay, later from cast iron, known as 'carcasses', were launched by a siege engine, filled with pitch, Greek fireor other incendiary mixtures. These fire pots could cause great damage to besieged cities with largely wooden construction.
A description of how to make military fire pots is given in Lucar, 1588, cited by Martin 1994:207-217 [Martin, Colin J. M. 1994 Incendiary Weapons From the Spanish Armada Wreck La Trinidad Valencera, 1588. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 23(3):207-217.]
"Make great and small earthen pottes which must be but half baked, and like unto the picture in the mergent . . . . Fill every of those pottes halfe with grosse gunpowder pressed downe harde, and with one of the five severall mixtures next following in this Chapter, fill up the other half of those pottes: This done, cover the mouth of every potte with a peece of canvasse bound hard about the mouth of the potte, and well imbrued in melted brimstone. Also tie round about the middle of every potte a packthreed, and then hang upon the same packthreed round about the potte so many Gunmatches of a finger length as you wil, & when you wil throe any of these pottes among enemies, light the same gun-matches that they may so soone as the potte is broken with his fall uppon the ground, fire the mixture of the potte. Or rather put fire to the mixture at the mouth of the potte, & by so doing make the same to burn before you doe throe the potte from you, because it is a better and more surer way than the other: I meane than to fire the said mixture after the potte is broken with burning gunmatches. Moreover this is to be noted, that the small pottes do serve for to be throne out of one shippe into an other in fight uppon the sea, and that the great pottes are to be used in service uppon the lande for the defence of townes, fortes, walles, and gates, and to burne such things as the enemies shall throe into ditches for to fill up the same ditches, and also to destroy emenies in their trenches and campes"
By the mid-17th century, fire pots had largely been replaced by shells filled with
explosives, which may be seen as the direct descendants of military fire pots.
Religion and the Arts
There is an element of mystery in fire, which at times has led to
fire worship.Fire pots have been used in religious ceremonies for thousands of years [http://www.pyracantha.com/Z/atarsh.html THE SACRED FIRE - Essay on fire and Zoroastrianism] .It would be inappropriate, and probably impossible, to cover all religious uses of fire pots in this article, but a few examples are relevant.
Censeris any type of vessel made for burning incense. They range from simple earthenware bowls to intricately carved silver or gold vessels, small table top objects a few centimetres tall to as many as several metres high. In many cultures, burning incense has spiritual and religious connotations, and this influences the design and decoration of the censer.
Before a Buddhist tantric ritual, an assisting monk may swing a censer or
thuribleas he passes to 'purify' the room. This is a container usually made of metal that hangs form three chains. Inside it, powdered incense that has been put on a smoldering bit of charcoal burns slowly, and the smoke escapes through pierced openings in the closed lid. One tradition says that during one of the Buddha's sermons a monk heedlessly swatted a mosquito. The Tathagathais said to have ordered that, in the future, incense ought to be lit in order to keep the flies away, so that people could more easily concentrate on Dharmateachings, but also to prevent the needless taking of lives.
Censers are used in the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, Old Catholic and Eastern Orthodox sects of the
Christian religionduring important rituals such as benedictions, processionsand important masses.
Early Jewish Symbol of God
Genesis15, a chapter of the Bible[ [http://etext.virginia.edu/kjv.browse.html] The Bible, King James Version] , God instructs Abrahamto cut a heifer, a she goat, a ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon into halves. When it got dark, "a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between the pieces", and later God made a covenant with Abraham granting him and his heirs extensive lands between the River of Egypt (either the Nileor the Wadi el Arish in the Sinai) and the Euphrates.
Texts from Mari in northern
Mesopotamiafrom about the same period say that parties entering into a covenant would seal the agreement by cutting a donkey in half and then walking between the severed pieces. One interpretation of the ceremony described in Genesis 15 is that God made an unconditional covenant when God alone (symbolized by the fire pot, or the fire in it) passed between the two halves of the slaughtered animals.
Japanese Kodo Ceremony
Kōdō[Kodo: The Way of Incense with Other (Paperback) by David Pybus, Tuttle, 2001. (ISBN 0-8048-3286-2)] (香道 - Way of Fragrance) is the Japanese art of appreciating incense, and involves using incense within a structure of codified conduct. Participants sit near one another and take turns smelling incense from a censer as they pass it around the group. Participants comment on and make observations about the incense, and play games to guess the incense material.
Sakthi Karagam is a dance performed in
Tamil Naduwith a fire pot on the head in the Mariammanor Durgatemple rituals. Today it is danced with a pot decorated with flowers on the head and is known as 'Aatta Karagam' and symbolises joy and merriment. In earlier times, the clay pot, or Karagam, was considered the residence of the local deity during the festival [Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700-1900, By Susan Bayly: pp35-36: Cambridge University Press, 2004] , which played a crucial role in community bonding. It is not clear whether the pot ever contained fire, or was so named because it was carried over fire by fire walkers.
Descendants of the Fire Pot
Although the fire pot and its ancestor the fire pit are still in use in their original forms, successive technical refinements have led to many modern descendants whose origin in the simple clay container might be hard to guess.Some have been driven by the need to adapt to new fuels, such as
charcoal, oil, coal, coke, kerosene, propane, electricityand microwaves. Others have been made possible through discovery of new materials such as iron, bronze, ceramics and asbestos. Always the motive would have been to improve the design, to make a device for managing fire that was cheaper, more robust, more convenient, more capable of meeting new demands. Often improvements made for industrial purposes found their way into improved cooking devices, and vice-versa.
An incomplete list of fire pot descendants includes:
Brazier: A standing or hanging metal bowl or box containing the fire, with perforations for ventilation. A Hibachiis a type of brazier.
Stove: An enclosed space containing the fire, with dampers and regulators to adjust the draft and thus control the heat. A stove allows for cleaner, hotter and more efficient use of fuel than a fire pot or brazier.
Oven: An enclosed compartment of a stove, separate from the fire, used for heating, baking or drying. Ovens may have their origin in the practice of enclosing food in clay or leaves before placing it in the fire, still used in Kalua, the traditional cuisine of Hawaii. Ovens make it practical to cook slowly, heating the food throughout, and are the basis of many types of cuisine. Ovens enable potteryand today are used in many industrial processes.
Boiler: A closed vessel in which water is heated. The discovery that boilers could build up explosive pressure if too well sealed led to the invention of the steam engine, a pivotal technology in the Industrial Revolution.
Barbecue: A device for cooking on a grill over a box containing burning wood, charcoal or, more recently, propane or natural gas.
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