- Electronics manufacturing
This article presents a typical manufacturing process of an electronic assembly.
Components such as
resistors, capacitors and integrated circuits are generally made by specialized contractors. Integrated circuits are generally made by the process of photolithography
Printed circuit board manufacturing
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are usually manufactured by specialized contractors.
urface-mount device components mounting
Surface-mount device (SMD) components can be hand-soldered, but usually they are placed using
surface-mount technology(SMT). The process usually consists of three steps:
solder paste print
#SMT placement, using a "pick and place" machine
reflow ovenThe process is repeated twice in order to populate both sides of the PCB.
Through-hole components mounting
There are 3 methods for mounting
through-holecomponents and connectors:
* hand soldering
In order to increase PCB and
SMTcapacity, several boards are panelized into one large multiblock. They are depaneled at a certain stage in the process, which might be before SMT, after SMTor just before final case-up.
case-upprocess consists of one or more of the following:
case-upof the depaneled PCB in a housing using various methods: screwing etc.
A completed PCA needs to be "cleaned", using various techniques depending on what type of solder and flux was used.
A clean wet board needs to be "dried" before the power can be inspected or electrically activate.
Electronic assemblies are tested at various process steps using following methods:
* In-Circuit testing (
in-circuit test) of integrated circuitsand other components
* inspection of components and joint quality::* visual inspection:*
X-Rayinspection (usually of invisible joints, e.g. BGA) :* Automated Optical Inspection Corporation]
* Final functional test after
* various other tests for assembly functioning in a range of conditions (temperature, humidity, vibrations, strain, etc.)
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