Socialist Republic of Macedonia


Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Socijalistička Republika Makedonija
Социјалистичка Република Македонија

Socialist Republic of Macedonia

A federal unit of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg
1944 — 1991 Flag of the Republic of Macedonia 1992-1995.svg
Flag of the SR Macedonia.svg Coat of arms of Macedonia.svg
Flag Coat of arms
SFRY Macedonia.png
Capital Skopje
Official language Macedonian
Established
In the SFRY:
 - Since
 - Until
August 2, 1944

January 31, 1946
September 8, 1991
Area
 - Total
 - Water
Ranked 4th in the SFRY
25,713 km²
1.9%
Population
 - Total 
 - Density
Ranked 4th in the SFRY
2,033,964
79.1/km²
Currency Yugoslav dinar (југословенски динари)
Time zone UTC + 1

The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was a socialist state that was a constituent country of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[1][2] After the transition of the political system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Republic changed its official name to Republic of Macedonia in 1991,[3] and with the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia, it declared full independence on September 8, 1991.

Contents

History

The modern Macedonian state was officially proclaimed under the name Democratic Federal Macedonia[4][5] (Macedonian: Демократска Федерална Македонија, Demokratska Federalna Makedonija) on August 2, 1944, at the First Plenary Session of ASNOM during the antifascist National Liberation War of Macedonia in World War II. This date is now celebrated by ethnic Macedonians as the day they were first allowed to freely state their nationality.

In June 1945, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia adopted Macedonian as its official language.[5]

In 1945, the state changed its official name to the People's Republic of Macedonia. It was formally incorporated as a constituent republic in the Yugoslav Federation in 1946. However, some people were against the federation and demanded greater independence from the federal authorities, leading to their prosecution. One of the notable victims of these purges was the first president, Metodija Andonov - Čento. In 1963, the name was changed to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Status

During this time, Macedonia had the status of a state, although not a completely independent one. It had its own constitution, collective presidency, government, parliament, official language, state symbols, a Ministry of Internal Affairs, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts and other state prerogatives. Also, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia had its own armed Territorial Defence armed forces (Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, Teritorijalna odbrana),[6] as well as a Bureau for Foreign Relations (a Ministry of Foreign Affairs).[7]

The rights of ethnic minorities were guaranteed by the constitution. The ruling political party was the League of Communists of Macedonia (Сојуз на комунистите на Македонија, Sojuz na komunistite na Makedonija).

The official language of SR Macedonia was Macedonian,[8] but Albanian and Turkish national minorities had the right to use their own languages within the school system.[9] The constitution of the SR Macedonia defined the state as the national state of the Macedonians, but also as the state of Albanians and Turks.[9]

Transition

In 1990, the form of government peacefully changed from socialist state to parliamentary democracy. The first pluralist elections were held on November 11, 1990. After the collective presidency led by Vladimir Mitkov[10] was dissolved, Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on January 31, 1991.[11] On April 16, 1991, the parliament adopted a constitutional amendment removing "Socialist" from the official name of the country, and on June 7 of the same year, the new name, Republic of Macedonia, was officially established.[3] After the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia began, the Republic of Macedonia proclaimed full independence, following a referendum held on September 8, 1991.

The Republic of Macedonia is the legal pre-successor to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

Heads of Institutions

History of the
Republic of Macedonia
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia
This article is part of a series
Chronological
Ottoman Macedonia
Karposh's Rebellion
National awakening
Ilinden Uprising
Kruševo Republic
Vardar Banovina
National Liberation War
Anti-Fascist Assembly (ASNOM)
National Liberation Front
Exodus from Northern Greece
Socialist Republic of Macedonia
1963 Skopje earthquake
Republic of Macedonia
2001 Insurgency in Macedonia
Ohrid Agreement
Topical
Military history
Demographics
History of the Macedonian people
Related
Region of Macedonia
Naming Dispute
Public Holidays

Republic of Macedonia Portal
v · d · e

Presidents of ASNOM

Presidents of Presidency of Parliament

Presidents of Parliament

  • Dimče-Mire Stojanov
  • Lazar Koliševski
  • Ljupčo Arsov
  • Vidoe Smilevski
  • Mito Hadživasilev
  • Nikola Minčev

Presidents of Presidency

  • Vidoe Smilevski
  • Ljupčo Arsov
  • Angel Čemerski
  • Blagoja Talevski
  • Tome Bukleski
  • Vančo Apostolski
  • Dragoljub Stavrev
  • Jezdimir Bogdanski
  • Vladimir Mitkov

Prime Ministers

  • Lazar Koliševski (1945–1953)
  • Ljupčo Arsov (1953–1961)
  • Aleksandar Grličkov (1961–1965)
  • Nikola Minčev (1965–1968)
  • Ksente Bogoev (1968–1974)
  • Blagoja Popov (1974–1982)
  • Dragoljub Stavrev (1982–1986)
  • Gligorije Gogovski (1986–1991)

President

This post was established in 1991 after the dissolution of the collective presidency

References

  1. ^ Устав Федеративне Народне Републике Југославије (1946), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on October 19, 2007. (Serbo-Croatian)
  2. ^ Устав Социјалистичке Федеративне Републике Југославије (1963), sr.wikisource.org, retrieved on October 19, 2007. (Serbo-Croatian)
  3. ^ a b On This Day - Macedonian Information Agency - MIA, see: 1991 (Macedonian)
  4. ^ Nedelen Vesnik Globus
  5. ^ a b Macedonian Information Agency
  6. ^ Ministry of Defence of Republic of Macedonia
  7. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Macedonia Official Site
  8. ^ РЕШЕНИЕ на Антифашиското собрание на народното ослободуене на Македонија за заведуене на македонскиот јазик како службен јазик во македонската држава (Rješenje Antifašističkog sobranja narodnog oslobođenja Makedonije o uvođenju makedonskoga jezika kao službenog jezika u državi Makedoniji), dokument br. 8, 2. kolovoza 1944., Prohor Pčinjski, Metodije Andonov Čento (predsjedatelj ASNOM)
  9. ^ a b Spasov, Ljudmil; Arizankovska, Lidija. Hierarhizacija jezikov v Republiki Makedoniji in Republiki Sloveniji glede na jezikovno politiko Evropske unije, (161. – 169.) u: Vidovič-Muha, Ada. (ur.) Slovenski knjižni jezik – aktualna vprašanja in zgodovinske izkušnje : ob 450-letnici izida prve slovenske knjige, Zbirka »Obdobja – metode in zvrsti« (vol. 20, ISSN 1408-211X), Center za slovenščino kot drugi/tuji jezik pri Oddelku za slovenistiko Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, 2003., ISBN 961-237-057-5, str. 163., 164.
    Prvi člen Ustave SR Makedonije (Ustav na SRM, 1974) je SRM definiral kot nacionalno državo makedonskega naroda ter albanske in turške narodnosti v njej. V členih 220 in 222 je bilo zapisano, da ljudje lahko prosto uporabljajo svoj jezik in pisavo za izražanje in razvijanje svoje kulture.
    —Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 163.
    Poleg tega so makedonske (in slovenske) javne osebe v okvirih SFRJ (zunaj SR Makedonije oziroma SR Slovenije) zelo redko upoštevale pravico do uporabe svojega jezika v javnem sporazumevanju, in to je dajalo vtis, da je edini uradni jezik na ravni države SFRJ srbohrvaščina.
    —Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 164.
  10. ^ Faculty of Law, University of Skopje (Macedonian)
  11. ^ a b Kiro Gligorov was elected president on January 31st 1991, when SR Macedonia was still an official name of the nation. After the change of the state's name, he continued his function as a President of the Republic of Macedonia - The Official Site of The President of the Republic of Macedonia

External links

Coordinates: 42°00′N 21°26′E / 42°N 21.433°E / 42; 21.433


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