- Augusta Raurica
Augusta Raurica is a large Roman
archaeological siteand an open-air museumin Switzerland. Located on the south bank of the Rhine river about 20 km east of Baselnear the villages of Augstand Kaiseraugst, it is the oldest known Roman colony on the Rhine.
Augusta Raurica, or "Colonia Augusta Rauracorum", was founded by
Lucius Munatius Plancusaround 44 BCin the area of a local Gallic tribe, the Rauraci, relatives of the Helvetii. No archaeological evidence from this period has yet been found, leading to the conclusion that either the settlement of the colony was disturbed by the civil war following the death of Julius Caesar, or that Plancus' colony was actually in the area of modern Basel, not Augst.
Successful colonization of the site had to wait for Augustus's conquest of the central Alps around 15 BC. The oldest find to date at Augusta Raurica has been dated to 6 BC by
The grave inscription of Munatius Plancus merely states the name of the colony as "Colonia Raurica". A fragmentary inscription from the Augustinian period speaks of the "Colonia P [aterna] (?) M [unatia] (?) [Felix] (?) [Apolli] naris [Augusta E] merita [Raur] ica" (Letters in brackets are reconstructions).Apart from this fragmentary reference, the first certain witness to the use of the name "Augustus" comes from the
geographer Ptolemyin the ancient Greekform "Augústa Rauríkon" (=lat.: Augusta Rauricorum).
Augusta Raurica played an important role in Augustus's plans of conquest with two other colonies that bear his name;
Augusta Praetoria, modern Aostaat the southern end of the Great Saint Bernard Pass, and Augusta Vindelicum, modern Augsburg, an outpost on the Danube. These three "Augustae" form the corners of a triangle that reaches across the Alpine conquests of Augustus, and whose long base from the "Rheinknie" to the Danube formed the frontier against unconquered Germania.
Layout of the settlement
excavationsit was determined that the city was founded on a high plateaujust south of the Rhineriver. Two small rivers, the Ergolz and Violen, have carved a triangle in the plateau, the base of which is about 1 kilometer wide along the base of the Jura, and the apex points northward toward the Rhine, about 1 kilometer from the base. This point is the site of the Roman castrum, or military fortification. The city is therefore well defended by steep slopes to the north, east, and west.
The next step in planning the city was the
surveyingof the area according to the architect's plans for the city. Every important public building had its specific place, starting with the temple of Jupiter as the sacred high point from which the street network would spread. The architect, who was responsible for executing the plans for the city, next laid a longitudinalaxis across the triangle 36˚ west of north to form the main street of the settlement. Other longitudinal streets were laid out parallel to the main street at intervals of 55 meters. The main street was then divided into sections of 66 meters (255 Roman feet), which formed the corners of 10 crossing streets. This created a series of rectangular blocks of around 50 by 60 meters. The streets were laid on a solid bed of graveland flanked by gutters on both sides. The more important roads featured covered sidewalksbehind rows of columns.
The limits of Colonia Raurica can no longer be determined with absolute accuracy, however the approximate boundaries can be determined by examining the extent of Augst in the early
middle ages. This would seem to indicate the colony extending from Basel toward the mouth of the Aare, then up the Aare to the mouth of the Sigger below Solothurn, across to the Lüssel, and then back down the Birsto Basel, though this is still conjecture at the moment. New research, based on tiles stamped with the mark of the Vindonissa Legion, indicates some administrative dependence on Vindonissa. This would indicate that the colony reached over the Bözbergtoward Frick, with the Thiersteinbergbelow Frick forming the eastern boundary. The western boundary, as mentioned above, was near the mouth of the Birs, possibly marked by a border station. Early Roman cremationremains found in 1937 by the church in Neuallschwilshow that such a post did exist on the main road north (toward Blotzheim) into Alsace. The Colonia Raurica on the whole contained the modern Canton of Basel, the Frick valley, and the eastern Jura of the Canton of Solothurn. The total area of the colony was around 700 km².
By the second century AD it was a prosperous commercial trading centre and in its glory days the capital of a local Roman province. It is estimated that the population reached approximately twenty thousand people. Augusta Raurica prospered between the first and third centuries, and exported smoked pork and bacon to other parts of the Roman Empire. In the city were the typical amenities of a Roman city, an
amphitheatre, a main forum, several smaller forums, an aqueduct, a variety of temples, and several public baths and the largest Roman theaternorth of the Alps with 8,000 to 10,000 seats. Many of these sites are open to visitors year round.
In 250 AD a powerful earthquake damaged a large part of the city. Shortly after, around 260 AD
Alemannitribes and/or marauding Roman troops destroyed the city. The Romans attempted to maintain their military position by building a fortress on the Rhine, Castrum Rauracense; the walls of which are still partly intact. Augusta Raurica was resettled on a much smaller scale on the site of the castrum. These two settlements form the centers of the modern communities of Augstand Kaiseraugst.
In 1442 these communities were divided along the
Ergolzand Violenbach rivers. The western portion was given to Basel, which became a canton of Switzerlandin 1501. In 1833 Augst became part of the canton of Basel-Land. The eastern part became part of Habsburgterritories, and to differentiate between the two towns was renamed Kaiseraugst. Kaiseraugst became part of Switzerland in 1803 after the defeat of the Habsburgs during the Napoleonic Wars.
Augusta Raurica today
The excavation site and the late Roman castle, the "Castrum Rauracense", are listed as heritage sites of national significance, as are the early Christian
baptisteriumand the brick kilnat Liebrüti. [ Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance(1995), p. 39.]
Many of the Roman buildings have been discovered and conserved through excavations, and most are open to the public:
*the theater, which with the
*temple across the street form an architectural unit.
*the main forum with the temple of
Jupiter, basilica, and the assembly chamber of the town council.
*the amphitheater, of which only modest remains exist.
*the aqueduct which supplied Augusta Raurica with drinking water from the
Liestal. (Parts are visible and accessible in Heidenloch in Liestal as well as northeast of the treatment plant in Füllinsdorf).Several private commercial buildings have also been found (a taberna, a bakery, a potter, and a tile kiln) as well as portions of a sewer. Around 80% of the built-up area has not yet been excavated. Augusta Raurica is the best preserved Roman city north of the Alpsthat has not been built over in medievalor modern times.
Museum and Roman house
The "Roman Museum" houses the most important finds from the Roman city and presents the history of Augusta Raurica. In the museum the visitor will often find special exhibits as well as most significant archaeological find at Augusta Raurica, the
silver treasureof Kaiseraugst. This treasure hoard was found in the fortress in 1961/62 and it is presumed to have once been the property of a commander. The museum also has a reconstruction of a Roman house with artifacts and reconstructions showing daily domestic and commercial life from the Roman period.
*"Jahresberichte aus Augst und Kaiseraugst." Amt für Museen u. Archäologie d. Kantons Basel-Landschaft, Liestal. Römermuseum Römerstadt Augusta Raurica, Augst 1.1980(1972-1975) - 4.1984(1978-1983); 5.1985ff.
*"Jahresbericht Römerhaus und Museum Augst." Römermuseum, Augst 1962-1972. ISSN|0259-8817
*"Forschungen in Augst." Schriftenreihe. bish. 36 Bd. Stiftung Pro Augusta Raurica. Römer-Museum, Augst-Basel 1.1977, 2.1975ff. ( [http://www.baselland.ch/docs/kultur/augustaraurica/publ/forschung.htm#top Index of publications] )
*"Ausgrabungen in Augst." 4 Bd. Stiftung Pro Augusta Raurica, Basel 1948ff.
*"Augster Museumshefte." bish. 32 Bd. Römermuseum, Augst 1.1976ff. ( [http://www.baselland.ch/docs/kultur/augustaraurica/publ/hefte.htm Index of publications] )
*Teodora Tomasevic Buck: "Augusta Raurica." Probleme, Anregungen und Neufunde. Bregenz 2003. ISBN 3-901802-13-4
* Marion Benz: "Augusta Raurica." Eine Entdeckungsreise durch die Zeit. In: "
Archäologie der Schweiz. (as.)" Mitteilungsblatt. SGUF, Basel 26.2003, S. 2-84. ISSN|0255-9005
* [http://www.baselland.ch/docs/kultur/augustaraurica/augusta_main-d.htm Römerstadt Augusta Raurica]
* [http://www.augusta-raurica.ch Augusta Raurica site]
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