- World government
World government is the notion of a single common political authority for all of humanity. Its modern conception is rooted in European history, particularly in the philosophy of ancient Greece, in the political formation of the Roman Empire, and in the subsequent struggle between secular authority, represented by the Holy Roman Emperor, and ecclesiastical authority, represented by the Pope. The seminal work on the subject was written by Dante Alighieri, titled in Latin, De Monarchia, which in English translates literally as "On Monarchy". Dante's work was published in 1329, but the date of its authorship is disputed.
De jure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) is a 1625 book in Latin, written by Hugo Grotius and published in Paris, on the legal status of war. It is now regarded as a foundational work in international law. Grotius was born April 10, 1583. He was a philosopher, theologian, play writer, and poet. Grotius is known for coming up with the idea of having an international law, and is still acknowledged today by the American society of International Law. Hugo was the first child of Jan de Groot and Alida van Overschie. He was exiled from many countries, though many people had great respect for him.
Immanuel Kant wrote the essay "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf.) (1795)". In his essay, Kant describes three basic requirements for organizing human affairs to permanently abolish the threat of present and future war, and, thereby, help establish a new era of lasting peace throughout the world. Specifically, Kant described his proposed peace program as containing two steps.
The "Preliminary Articles" described the steps that should be taken immediately, or with all deliberate speed:
- "No Secret Treaty of Peace Shall Be Held Valid in Which There Is Tacitly Reserved Matter for a Future War"
- "No Independent States, Large or Small, Shall Come under the Dominion of Another State by Inheritance, Exchange, Purchase, or Donation"
- "Standing Armies Shall in Time Be Totally Abolished"
- "National Debts Shall Not Be Contracted with a View to the External Friction of States"
- "No State Shall by Force Interfere with the Constitution or Government of Another State"
- "No State Shall, during War, Permit Such Acts of Hostility Which Would Make Mutual Confidence in the Subsequent Peace Impossible: Such Are the Employment of Assassins (percussores), Poisoners (venefici), Breach of Capitulation, and Incitement to Treason (perduellio) in the Opposing State"
Three Definitive Articles would provide not merely a cessation of hostilities, but a foundation on which to build a peace.
- "The Civil Constitution of Every State Should Be Republican"
- "The Law of Nations Shall be Founded on a Federation of Free States"
- "The Law of World Citizenship Shall Be Limited to Conditions of Universal Hospitality"
In 1811, German philosopher Karl Krause, suggested, in an essay titled "The Archetype of Humanity", the formation of five regional federations: Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia, aggregated under a world republic. In 1842, the English poet Lord Alfred Tennyson, published the oft-quoted lines "Locksley Hall": For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see / Saw a Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be /... / Till the war-drum throbb'd no longer / and the battle-flags were furled / In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world. / There the common sense of most shall hold / a fretful realm in awe / And the kindly earth shall slumber / lapt in universal law.
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant commented, "I believe at some future day, the nations of the earth will agree on some sort of congress which will take cognizance of international questions of difficulty and whose decisions will be as binding as the decisions of the Supreme Court are upon us."
Wendell Wilkie expanded on this notion in his book One World.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman commented: "We must make the United Nations continue to work, and to be a going concern, to see that difficulties between nations may be settled just as we settle difficulties between States here in the United States. When Kansas and Colorado fall out over the waters in the Arkansas River, they don't go to war over it, they go to the Supreme Court of the United States, and the matter is settled in a just and honorable way. There is not a difficulty in the whole world that cannot be settled in exactly the same way in a world court." -- President Truman's remarks in Omaha, Nebraska on June 5, 1948, at the dedication of the War Memorial.
International Peace Congress
Starting in 1843, International Peace Congresses were held in Europe every two years, but lost their momentum after 1853 due to the renewed outbreak of wars in Europe (Crimea) and North America (American Civil War).
International organizations started forming in the late 19th century – the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863, the Telegraphic Union in 1865 and the Universal Postal Union in 1874. The increase in international trade at the turn of the 20th century accelerated the formation of international organizations, and, by the start of World War I in 1914, there were approximately 450 of them. Support for the idea of establishing international law grew during that period as well. The Institute of International Law was formed in 1873 by the Belgian Jurist Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns, leading to the creation of concrete legal drafts, for example by the Swiss Johaan Bluntschli in 1866. In 1883, James Lorimer published "The Institutes of the Law of Nations" in which he explored the idea of a world government establishing the global rule of law. The first embryonic world parliament, called the Inter-Parliamentary Union, was organized in 1886 by Cremer and Passy, composed of legislators from many countries. In 1904 the Union formally proposed "an international congress which should meet periodically to discuss international questions".
League of Nations
The League of Nations (LoN) was an inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's goals included upholding the new found Rights of Man such as right of non whites, rights of women, rights of soldiers, disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to economic sanctions which the League ordered, or provide an army, when needed, for the League to use. However, they were often reluctant to do so. Lacking many key elements in maintaining world peace, the League of Nations failed to prevent World War II. Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations once he planned to take over Europe. The rest of the Axis powers soon followed him. Having failed its primary goal, the League of Nations fell apart and eventually was recreated into the United Nations. The main parts of the League of Nations included the Assembly, the Council, and the Permanent Secretariat. Under these main parts there were many subgroups or agencies. The Assembly was where all member states came together. Each country was allowed three representatives and one vote.
The ruling Nazi Party of 1933-1945 Germany envisaged the ultimate establishment of a world government under the complete hegemony of the Third Reich. In its move to overthrow the post-World War I Treaty of Versailles Germany had already withdrawn itself from the League of Nations, and it did not intend to join a similar internationalist organization ever again. In his desire and stated political aim of expanding the "living space" (Lebensraum) of the German people by destroying or driving out "lesser-deserving races" in and from other territories dictator Adolf Hitler may have devised an ideological system of self-perpetuating expansionism, in which the expansion of a state's population would require the conquest of more territory which would in turn lead to a further growth in population which would then require even more conquests. In 1927 Rudolf Hess relayed to Walter Hewel Hitler's belief that world peace could only be acquired "when one power, the racially best one, has attained uncontested supremacy." When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space.... The lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly."
The Atlantic Charter was a published statement agreed between Britain and the United States of America. It was intended as the blueprint for the postwar world after World War II, and turned out to be the foundation for many of the international agreements that currently shape the world. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of British and French possessions, and much more are derived from the Atlantic Charter. The Atlantic charter was made to show the goals of the allied powers during World War II. It first started with The United States and Great Britain, and later all the allies would follow the charter. Some goals include access to raw materials, reduction of trade restrictions, and freedom from fear and wants. The name, The Atlantic Charter, came from a newspaper that coined the title. However, Winston Churchill would use it, and from then on the Atlantic Charter was the official name. In retaliation, the Axis powers would raise their morale and try to work their way into Great Britain. The Atlantic Charter was a stepping stone into the creation of the United Nations.
World War II, 1939–1945, resulted in an unprecedented scale of destruction of lives (over 60 million dead, most of them civilians), and the use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Some of the acts committed against civilians during the war were on such a massive scale of savagery, they came to be widely considered as crimes against humanity itself. As the war's conclusion drew near, many shocked voices called for the establishment of institutions able to permanently prevent deadly international conflicts. This led to the founding of the United Nations in 1945, which adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Many, however, felt that the UN, essentially a forum for discussion and coordination between sovereign governments, was insufficiently empowered for the task. A number of prominent persons, such as Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Bertrand Russell and Mohandas K. Gandhi, called on governments to proceed further by taking gradual steps towards forming an effectual federal world government. The United Nations main goal is to work on international law, international security, economic development, human rights, social progress, and eventually world peace. The United Nations replaced the League of Nations in 1945, after World War II. Nearly every country is in the U.N., 193 member states. The United Nations gather regularly in order to solve big problems throughout the world. There are six official languages: Arabic, English, Spanish, Russian, French, and Chinese. The United Nations is also financed by some of the wealthiest nations. The flag shows the Earth from a map that shows all of the occupied continents.
World Federalist Movement
The years between the conclusion of World War II and 1950, when the Korean War started and the Cold War mindset became dominant in international politics, were the "golden age" of the world federalist movement. Wendell Wilkie's book "One World", first published in 1943, sold over 2 million copies. In another, Emery Reves' book "The Anatomy of Peace"(1945) laid out the arguments for replacing the UN with a federal world government and quickly became the "bible" of world federalists. The grassroots world federalist movement in the US, led by people such as Grenville Clark, Norman Cousins, Alan Cranston and Robert Hutchins, organized itself into increasingly larger structures, finally forming, in 1947, the United World Federalists (later renamed to World Federalist Association, then Citizens for Global Solutions), claiming membership of 47,000 in 1949.
Similar movements concurrently formed in many other countries, leading to the formation, at a 1947 meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, of a global coalition, now called World Federalist Movement. By 1950, the movement claimed 56 member groups in 22 countries, with some 156,000 members.
In France, 1948, Garry Davis began an unauthorized speech calling for a world government from the balcony of the UN General Assembly, until he was dragged away by the guards. Mr. Davis renounced his American citizenship and started a Registry of World Citizens, which claimed to have registered over 750,000 people in less than two years. Opinion polls carried out by UNESCO in 1948-1949 found world government favored by a majority of respondents in six European countries and rejected in three other countries (Australia, Mexico and the United States). On September 4, 1953, Davis, from the City Hall of Ellsworth, Maine, announced the formation of the "World Government of World Citizens" based on 3 "World Laws" — One God (or Absolute Value), One World, and One Humanity. Following this declaration mandated he claimed by article 21(3) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, he formed the United World Service Authority in New York City as the administrative agency of the new government. Its first task was to design and issue a "World Passport" based on article 13(2) of the UDHR. To date, over 800,000 of these documents have been issued to individuals worldwide. They have been recognized de facto by over 180 countries.
World Passport (1953)
The World Passport is a 45 page document issued by the World Service Authority, a non-profit organization, citing Article 13, Section 2, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. World Passports have reportedly been accepted on a de facto, case-by-case basis by over 174 countries and, at one time or another, on an explicit, legal or de jure basis by Burkina Faso, Ecuador, Mauritania, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. The latest edition of the World Passport, issued January 2007, is an MRD (machine readable document) with an alphanumeric code bar enabling computer input plus an embedded "ghost" photo for security, printing overcovered with a plastic film. The passport is in 7 languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Chinese and Esperanto. Two covers are available: "World Passport," and "World Government Passport" (for registered World Citizens), ("passport" is in 7 languages on both covers). Duration is 8 years, 5 years or 3 years. Other documents issued by WSA are a World Birth Certificate (Art. 1, UDHR), a World Political Asylum Card (Art. 14, UDHR), a World Marriage Certificate, (Art. 16, UDHR) and a World Identity Card, (Art 21,3, UDHR). Each passport is numbered and each page has the World Citizen logo in the background. There are two pages for affiliation with companies, organizations, and firms. There are nineteen visa pages in the passport. In the back cover there are spaces for personal information such as a person’s home address.
Legal Realism (1954)
Legal anthropologist E. Adamson Hoebel concluded his treatise on broadening the legal realist tradition to include non-Western nations: “Whatever the idealist may desire, force and the threat of force are the ultimate power in the determination of international behavior, as in the law within the nation or tribe. But until force and the threat of force in international relations are brought under social control by the world community, by and for the world society, they remain the instruments of social anarchy and not the sanctions of world law. The creation in clear-cut terms of the corpus of world law cries for the doing. If world law, however, is to be realized at all, there will have to be minimum of general agreement as to the nature of the physical and ideational world and the relation of men in society to it. An important and valuable next step will be found in deep-cutting analysis of the major law systems of the contemporary world in order to lay bare their basic postulates – postulates that are too generally hidden; postulates felt, perhaps, by those who live by them, but so much taken for granted that they are rarely expressed or exposed for examination. When this is done – and it will take the efforts of many keen intellects steeped in the law of at least a dozen lands and also aware of the social nexus of the law – then mankind will be able to see clearly for the first time and clearly where the common consensus of the great living social and law systems lies. Here will be found the common postulates and values upon which the world community can build. At the same time the truly basic points of conflict that will have to be worked upon for resolution will be revealed. Law is inherently purposive."
The end of the Cold War (1991)
While enthusiasm for multinational federalism in Europe incrementally led, over the following decades, to the formation of the European Union, the onset of the Cold War (1946–1991) eliminated the prospects of any progress towards federation with a more global scope. The movement quickly shrunk in size to a much smaller core of activists, and the FWG idea all but disappeared from wide public discourse.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, interest in a federal world government and, more generally, in the global protection of human rights, was renewed. The most visible achievement of the world federalism movement during the 1990s is the Rome Statute of 1998, which led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court in 2002. In Europe, progress towards forming a federal union of European states gained much momentum, starting in 1952 as a trade deal between the German and French people lead, in 1992, to the Maastricht Treaty that established the name and enlarged the agreement that the European Union (EU) is based upon. The EU expanded (1995, 2004, 2007) to encompass, in 2007, nearly half a billion people in 27 member states. Following EU's example, the African Union was founded in 2002 and the Union of South American Nations in 2004.
Historically, the Caliphate was established by the followers of the prophet Muhammad in Medina after his death in 632. Abu Bakr who was the closest associate of the prophet was selected as the first Caliph or Deputy; hence the term Caliphate. Abu Bakr called himself the prophet's deputy and the leader of Muslims. He and the three Caliphs selected after him shunned any pretensions to royalty but later on ruling dynasties came into existence and ruled until the end of the Ottoman Caliphate that came after its defeat in the First World War along with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire by, inter alia, Britain, France and Russia in 1918. During the intervening centuries, Islamic Caliphate's authority expanded to encompass regions in Europe, Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia and northern Africa. These territories were ruled under Islamic law. The Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish National Assembly under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924. In the modern era, many Islamic organizations such as Hizb ut Tahrir, the Muslim Brotherhood, Al Qaidah, the Taliban and Al-Shabaab have attempted to re-establish an Islamic state.
Existing regional unions of nations
There are a number of other regional organisations that, while not supranational unions, have adopted or intend to adopt policies that may lead to a similar sort of integration in some respects.
- African Union (AU)
- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
- Central American Integration System (SICA)
- Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG)
- Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
- Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC)
- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
- Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)
- Union State
- Arab League
- Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
- Turkic Council (TurkKon)
Other organisations that have also discussed greater integration include:
- Arab League into an "Arab Union"
- North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) into the "North American Union"
- Pacific Islands Forum into the "Pacific Union"
- Caribbean Community (CARICOM) into a Caribbean Federation
The most relevant model for the incremental establishment of a global federation may be the European Union, which politically unites a large group of widely diverse, some formerly hostile, nations spread over a large geographical area and 500 million people. Though the EU is still evolving, it already has many attributes of a federal government, such as open internal borders, a directly elected parliament, a court system, an official currency (Euro) and a centralized economic policy.
The EU's lead is being followed by the African Union, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of Central American States, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. A multitude of regional associations, aggregating most nations of the world, are at different stages of development towards a growing extent of economic, and sometimes political, integration.The European Union consists of twenty seven European states. It has developed a “single market” which allows people of different countries to travel from state to state without a passport. This also includes the same policies when it comes to trading. The European Union is said to have 26% of the worlds money. All EU member states do not use the Euro such as the United Kingdom which retains the pound Sterling. Where the Euro is in place, it allows easy access for the free circulation of trade goods. Tariffs are also the same for each country allowing no unfair practices within the union. With the free movement from country to country, this allows people to travel easily and freely.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM), is an organization of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies. CARICOM's main purpose is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared and to coordinate foreign policy. Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning; devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction; operating as a regional single market for many of its members CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME); and handling regional trade disputes.
Since the establishment of CARICOM by the mainly English Creole-speaking parts of the Caribbean region CARICOM has become multilingual in practice with the addition of Dutch speaking Suriname on 4 July 1995 (although the lingua franca in Suriname is Sranan Tongo, which is an English-based Creole like the languages spoken in much of the rest of CARICOM) and Haiti, where French and Haitian Creole are spoken, on 2 July 2002. In 2001, the heads of government signed a Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas in Trinidad and Tobago, clearing the way for the transformation of the idea for a Common Market aspect of CARICOM into instead a Caribbean Single Market and Economy. Part of the revised treaty among member states includes the establishment and implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ).
The African Union (AU) is an organisation consisting of fifty-four African states. Established on July 9, 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the amalgamated African Economic Community (AEC) and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency and a single integrated defence force, as well as other institutions of state, including a cabinet for the AU Head of State. The purpose of the union is to help secure Africa's democracy, human rights, and a sustainable economy, especially by bringing an end to intra-African conflict and creating an effective common market.
Projects for improved economic and political cooperation are also happening at a regional level with the Arab Maghreb Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Economic Community of Central African States the Southern African Development Community and the East African Community.
ASEAN ( // ah-see-ahn), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand as a display of solidarity toward communist expansion in Vietnam and insurgency within their own borders. Its claimed aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, and the promotion of regional peace. All members later founded the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, which aims to unite the entire continent.
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an intergovernmental organization which was founded on June 14, 2001 by the leaders of the People's Republic of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Except for Uzbekistan, these countries had been members of the Shanghai Five; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organization.
Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is comparable to a confederation similar to the original European Community. Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization, possessing coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security. It has also promoted cooperation on democratization and cross-border crime prevention. As a regional organization, CIS participates in UN peacekeeping forces. Some of the members of the CIS have established the Eurasian Economic Community with the aim of creating a full-fledged common market.
The Arab League is a regional organization of Arab states in Southwest Asia, and North and Northeast Africa. It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members, which also include, Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia and UAE. It has also been proposed to reform the Arab League into an Arab Union. the Arab League currently is the most important organization in the region.
Union of South American Nations
The Union of South American Nations was founded in 2006-2008 and is modeled on the European Union. It incorporates all the independent states of South America. These states are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia. In terms of population, its sphere of influence is the largest of any regional organization: almost 1.5 billion people, the combined population of its member states. It was established on December 8, 1985 by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation منظمة التعاون الاسلامي (Arabic) Organisation de la Coopération Islamique (French) Headquarters Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Official languages Arabic, English, French Membership 57 member states Leaders - Secretary-General Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu Website
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an international organisation with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. It groups 57 member states, from the Middle East, Africa, Central Asia, Caucasus, Balkans, Southeast Asia and South Asia. The organization claims that it represents the Global Islamic World (ummah). The official languages of the organisation are Arabic, English and French.
Since the nineteenth century, many Muslims had aspired to uniting the Muslim ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. Despite the presence of secularist, nationalist, and socialist ideologies in modern Muslim states, they have cooperated together to form the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The formation of the OIC happened in the backdrop of the loss of Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem. The final cause sufficiently compelled leaders of Muslim nations to meet in Rabat to establish the OIC on September 25, 1969.
According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.
The former flag of the OIC (shown on the right) has an overall green background (symbolic of Islam). In the centre, there is an upward-facing red crescent enveloped in a white disc. On the disc the words "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "God is great") are written in Arabic calligraphy.
On August 5, 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.
The Turkic Council is an international organization comprising Turkic countries. Since 1992, the Turkic Language Speaking Countries Summit has been organizing amongst the Turkic countries. On October 3, 2009, four of these countries signed the Nahcivan Agreement. The organizational center is İstanbul. Additionally, the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture was founded in Almaty in 1992 and the Turkic Countries Parliamentarian Assembly was founded in Baku in 1998. All of these organizations were coopted into the Turkic Council. The Turkic Council has an operational style similar to organization like the Arab League. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council. However, due to their neutral stance, they participate in international relations and are strongly predicted to be future members of the council. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.
The World Constitution and Parliament Association
The World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA) was created in 1958 to promote democratic world government. During the next 33 years the WCPA held four Global Constituent Assemblies centered around creating a Constitution for the Federation of Earth. At the fourth assembly in Troia, Portugal in 1991, final amendments to the Constitution were made and approved. Even before this assembly, the organization has been involved in a worldwide campaign to ratify the Earth Constitution under the provisions set forth in Article 17. Since 1982, the WCPA has also organized sessions of the Provisional World Parliament, the first of which was in Brighton, England and the tenth session of which was in Kara, Togo in 2007. Under the authority of Article 19 of the Constitution, the Parliament debates and passes provisional world legislation that serves as a model and a guide for developing democratic world government. The Parliament also works toward a founding ratification convention at which the nations and people of Earth join together to ratify the Constitution and initiate a new demilitarized, democratic world order.
United Nations Parliamentary Assembly
A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that would allow for participation of member nations' legislators and, eventually, direct election of United Nations (UN) parliament members by citizens worldwide. The idea was raised at the founding of the League of Nations in the 1920s and again following the end of World War II in 1945, but remained dormant throughout the Cold War. In the 1990s and 2000s, the rise of global trade and the power of world organizations that govern it led to calls for a parliamentary assembly to scrutinize their activity. The Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly was formed in 2007 to coordinate pro-UNPA efforts, which as of February 2009 has received the support of over 600 Members of Parliament from over 90 countries worldwide.
The current global governance system
The Earth is divided geographically and demographically into mutually-exclusive territories and political structures called states which are independent and sovereign in most cases. One may also make the case that political and economic independence, although related, are not the same, and even though former colonies have acquired political independence since World War II, they have become more dependent upon each other financially. There are numerous bodies, institutions, unions, coalitions, agreements and contracts between these units of authority, but, except in cases where a nation is under military occupation by another, all such arrangements depend on the continued consent of the participant nations. Thus the use of violence is unprohibited throughout the realm and is only checked by the threat of retaliatory violence or nonviolent sanctions (see Gene Sharp), so where no such threat exists a nation may use violence against another.
Among the voluntary organizations and international arrangements the following are:
- The United Nations (UN) is the primary formal organization coordinating activities between states on a global scale and the only inter-governmental organization with a truly universal membership (193 governments). In addition to the main organs and various humanitarian programs and commissions of the UN itself, there are about 20 functional organizations affiliated with the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), such as the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and International Telecommunications Union. Of particular interest politically are the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.
- The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), were formed together at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States in July 1944, to foster global monetary cooperation and to fight poverty by financially assisting states in need. The World Trade Organization (WTO) sets the rules of international trade. It already has a semi-legislative body (The General Council, reaching decisions by consensus), and a judicial body (The Dispute Settlement Body). Another influential economical international organization is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with membership of 30 democratic members.
- G8, an association of the eight highest GDP Nations of the World. The leaders of the G8 countries meet annually in person to coordinate their policies in confronting global issues, such as poverty, terrorism, infectious diseases, and climate change.
- G20, an association of twenty developing and established nations and entities, including the European Union.
- Militarily, the UN deploys peacekeeping forces, usually to build and maintain post-conflict peace and stability. When a more aggressive international military action is undertaken, either ad-hoc coalitions (e.g., multinational force in Iraq), or regional military alliances (e.g., NATO) are used.
- International law encompasses international treaties, customs, and globally acceptable legal principles. With the exceptions of cases brought before the ICC and ICJ (see below), the laws are interpreted by national courts. Many violations of treaty or customary law obligations are overlooked.
- The International Court of Justice (ICJ) (also known as World Court) is the judiciary organ of the United Nations. It settles disputes submitted to it voluntarily by states (only), and gives advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by other organs of the UN, such as the General Assembly or Security Council.
A recent development in international law is the International Criminal Court (ICC), the first ever permanent international criminal court, which was established to ensure that the gravest international crimes do not go unpunished. The ICC treaty was signed by 139 national governments, of which 100 ratified it into law by October 2005.
In addition to the formal, or semi-formal, international organizations and laws mentioned above, many other mechanisms act to regulate human activities across national borders. In particular, international trade in goods, services and currencies (the "global market") has a tremendous impact on the lives of people in almost all parts of the world, creating deep interdependency amongst nations (see globalization). Trans-national (or multi-national) corporations, some with resources exceeding those available to most governments, govern activities of people on a global scale. The rapid increase in the volume of trans-border digital communications and mass-media distribution (e.g., Internet, satellite television) has allowed information, ideas, and opinions to rapidly spread across the world, creating a complex web of international coordination and influence, mostly outside the control of any formal organizations or laws.
- Allida Black, June Hopkins, NPS.gov, "League of Nations." 2003, (accessed 4/9/2008)
- Archibugi, Daniele, Amazon.com, "The Global Commonwealth of Citizens. Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy", (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008).
- Baratta, Joseph. Barnesandnoble.com, The Politics of World Federation, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003). Introduction available Globalsolutions.org
- Bruner Michael, Melissa Green, Lawrence McBride, The NYSTROM Atlas of World History, Edition 1, The NYSTROM Atlas, Volume 1, World History, Chicago, NYSTROM, 2004.
- Cabrera, Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State (London: Routledge, 2004;2006).
- Daniel Chu and Elliot Skinner, A Glorious Age in Africa, Edition 1, None, Volume 1, A Glorious Age in Africa, Tenton, Africa World Press, 2000.
- Davis, Garry, My Country Is The World, (G.P. Putnam Sons, 1961).
- Davis, Garry, World Government, Ready or Not! (World Government House, South Burlington, VT 05407, 1984).
- Davis, Garry, Passport to Freedom, (Seven Locks Press, Cabin John, MD, 1992).
- Davis, Garry, A World Citizen In the Holy Land, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT 05407)
- Davis, Garry, Dear World, A Global Odyssey, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407,2000)
- Davis, Garry, Letters to World Citizens, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407, 2004).
- Davis, Garry, Views From My Space, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407, 2009).
- Craig, Campbell. Glimmer of a New Leviathan: Total War in the Realism of Niebuhr, Morgenthau, and Waltz (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).
- Deudney, Daniel. Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).
- Dervis, Kermal. A Better Globalization: Legitimacy, Governance, and Reform. (Washington: Center for Global Development, 2005.) Selections available CGDEV.org
- Domingo, Rafael, The New Global Law (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
- Etzioni, Amitai. From Empire to Community: A New Approach to International Relations (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)
- Hamer, Chistopher. UNW.edu.au, Global Parliament - Principles of World Federation (Oyster Bay, NSW: Oyster Bay Books, 1998.)
- Hooker, Richard, WSU.edu, 2/14/2008 "The Mongolian Empire: The Yuan" (6/6/1999)
- Marchetti, Raffaele. Global Democracy: For and Against. Ethical Theory, Institutional Design and Social Struggles (London: Routledge, 2008). ISBN 978-0-415-55495-4
- Monbiot, George. Thenewpress.com, Manifesto for a New World Order, (New York: New Press, 2005). Published in the United Kingdom as Amazon.co.uk, Age of Consent.
- Rajan, Chella. GTinitiative.org, Global Politics and Institutions. GTI Paper 3#. (Boston: Tellus Institute, 2006). Additional papers in the GTI series available at GTinitiative.org.
- Strauss, Andrew. Oneworldtrust.org, Taking Democracy Global: Assessing the Benefits and Challenges of a Global Parliamentary Assembly. (London: One World Trust, 2005).
- Stark, Jim. Rescue Plan for Planet Earth: Democratic World Government through a Global Referendum (Toronto: Key Publishing House Inc, 2008)
- Tamir, Yael. "Who's Afraid of a Global State?" in Kjell Goldman, Ulf Hannerz, and Charles Westin, eds., Nationalism and Internationalism in the post–Cold War Era (London: Routledge, 2000).
- Wendt, Alexander. “Why a World State is Inevitable,” European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2003), pp. 491–542
- Yunker, James A. Political Globalization: A New Vision of Federal World Government (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2007).
- MSN Encarta, "World Government." 2007, (accessed 5/4/2008).
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "World Government." December 4, 2006. Stanford.edu, (accessed 4/13/2008).
- Trueman, Chris. "League of Nations." Historylearningsite.co.uk (accessed 4/9/2008).
- United Nations Staff, "History of the UN." 2000. UN.org (accessed 4/10/2008).
- We the People, The Roxbury Latin School.
- The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with 23 member and 16 associated organizations around the globe working towards the establishment of a federated world government. The U.S. member organization is Citizens for Global Solutions, and the Canadian organization is World Federalist Movement - Canada
- The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is a well-funded research and education center in Canada dedicated to the subject. It is preparing to launch IGLOO: "a global online research community focused solely on strengthening governance around the world."
- One World Trust (OWT) is a charity based in the United Kingdom and member of the World Federalist Movement. Its current work aims to promote reforms of existing global organizations leading to greater accountability.
- Civitatis International is a non-governmental organization based in the United Kingdom that produces legal research promoting increased systems of global governance to policymakers.
- The Committee for a Democratic UN is a network of parliamentarians and non-governmental organizations from Germany, Switzerland and Austria which is based on world federalist philosophy.
- Democratic World Federalists is a San-Francisco-based civil society organization with supporters worldwide, advocates a democratic federal system of world government.
- The World Government of World Citizens, founded September 4, 1953 in Ellsworth, ME, by former Broadway actor and WWII bomber pilot Garry Davis following the registering of 750,000 individuals worldwide as World Citizens by the International Registry of World Citizens, headquartered in Paris, January 1, 1949. Its main office is in Washington, DC.
- Vote World Parliament(VWP) is a Canadian NGO which has independently begun a global referendum posing the following question : Do you support the creation of a directly-elected, representative and democratic world parliament that is authorized to legislate on global issues?
- Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
- ^ USYD.edu.au
- ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (2004). "Reform of the General Assembly" (PDF). Revitalizing the United Nations : Reform Through Weighted Voting. New York and The Hague: Institute For Global Policy, World Federalist Movement. pp. 3. ISBN 0-9710727-4-4. OCLC 56124473. http://oldsite.globalsolutions.org/programs/intl_instit/UN_ref/Schwartzberg_Weighted_Voting.pdf. Retrieved 2005-12-14.
- ^ Public Papers, Harry S. Truman Library |url=http://trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/viewpapers.php?pid=1647
- ^ a b c Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1995) Germany, Hitler, and World War II: essays in modern German and world history. Cambridge University Press, p. 36. 
- ^ Weinberg 1995, p. 37.
- ^ Worldservice.org
- ^ Worldgovernment.org, Copies of visas
- ^ Romingerlegal.com, 99-1334 - U.S. v. THOMAS - 07/07/2000
- ^ http://www.worldservice.org/docpass.html
- ^ The Law of Primitive Man (1954:331-333)
- ^ "The majority of early scholars, holds that Muslims should prepare power, mobilize armies, head towards the opponents’ countries, and, before fighting them, offer them a choice between allowing the preaching of Islam, paying the Jizyah (head-tax), if they were entitled to paying it, or fighting... The reason given by these scholare for their views was Allah's saying: “And fight them until there is no temptation, and the religion is for Allah.” (Qur'an 2:193). -The Rulings of Sharî’ah Relating to Muslims living in non-Muslim Countries Chapter 2, Khalid Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Beirut, Lebanon, 1994
- ^ Bauböck, Rainer (2007). "Why European Citizenship? Normative Approaches to Supranational Union". Theoretical Inquiries in Law (Berkeley Electronic Press) 8 (2, Article 5). ISSN 1565-3404. http://www.bepress.com/til/default/vol8/iss2/art5. Retrieved 2009-08-01. "A normative theory of supranational citizenship will necessarily be informed by the EU as the only present case and will be addressed to the EU in most of its prescriptions"
- ^ Bangkok Declaration. Wikisource. Retrieved March 14, 2007
- ^ Overview, ASEAN Secretariat official website. Retrieved June 12, 2006
- ^ PDF (354 KB)
- ^ "The Organization has the singular honor to galvanize the Ummah into a unified body and have actively represented the Muslims by espousing all causes close to the hearts of over 1.5 billion Muslims of the world."
- ^ a b http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=52
- ^ http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html
- ^ Watson, Graham (26 September 2007). The Case for Global Democracy: Cross Party Coalition of MEPs calls for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Graham Watson MEP. Retrieved on 7 December 2007.
- ^ UNPAcampaign.org, Over 600 MPs support call for UN Parliamentary Assembly - 4 February 2009, CEUNPA
- ^ UN.org, Chart
- World government entry by Catherine Lu in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, December 4, 2006
- Immanuel Kant: "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch" (English translation of "Zum ewigen Frieden")
Global governance and identity ProposalsUnited Nations Parliamentary Assembly · World government Theories Organisations
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
world government — world government, a proposed government that would govern and serve everybody in the world, taking the place of individual governments … Useful english dictionary
World government in science fiction — In both science fiction and utopian/dystopian fiction, authors have made frequent use of the age old idea of a global state and, accordingly, of world government. Overview In tune with Immanuel Kant s vision of a world state based on the… … Wikipedia
World Government Party — The World Government Party was a minor federalist political party in the United Kingdom. with the twin aims of advocating a world government based on the British Parliament, and better welfare for the elderly. The party s proposals included the… … Wikipedia
Salomon Smith Barney World Government Bond Index — The Salomon Smith Barney World Government Bond Index is a market capitalization weighted bond index consisting of the government bond markets of the following countries: *Australia *Austria *Belgium *Canada *Denmark *Finland *France *Germany… … Wikipedia
Salomon Brothers Non-U.S. Dollar World Government Bond Index — A benchmark index that includes institutionally traded bonds other than U.S. issues that have a fixed rate and a remaining maturity of one year or longer. Bloomberg Financial Dictionary … Financial and business terms
World domination — (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or colloquially taking over the world), in which a single political authority rules over all the inhabitants of planet Earth, has been attempted by several individuals and political systems throughout … Wikipedia
World Union — is a non profit, non political organization founded on the November 26, 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindo s vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. For the ordinary… … Wikipedia
World order — may refer to: Contents 1 International relations 2 Publications 3 Other … Wikipedia
World Security Workshop — was an anthology series on the ABC radio network, presented by United World Federalists, and its predecessor Americans United for World Government. Twenty six half hour episodes were broadcast between 14 November 1946 and 8 May 1947. ABC Radio… … Wikipedia
government — governmental /guv euhrn men tl, euhr men /, adj. governmentally, adv. /guv euhrn meuhnt, euhr meuhnt/, n. 1. the political direction and control exercised over the actions of the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities, societies, and… … Universalium