Ernest William Barnes


Ernest William Barnes

Infobox_Scientist
name = Ernest William Barnes

|300px
image_width = 300px
caption = Ernest W. Barnes
birth_date = birth date|1874|4|1|df=y
birth_place = Birmingham, England
residence =
nationality =
death_date = death date and age|1953|11|29|1874|4|1|df=y
death_place = Sussex, England
field = Mathematician and Clergyman
work_university = University of Cambridge
alma_mater = University of Cambridge
doctoral_advisor = W. W. Rouse Ball
doctoral_students = J. E. Littlewood
known_for = Work on the gamma function
prizes =
religion = Anglican
footnotes =

Ernest William Barnes (1 April 1874 - 29 November 1953) was an English mathematician and scientist, who became a theologian and churchman.

He was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was Master of the Temple from 1915 to 1919. He was made Bishop of Birmingham in 1924, the only bishop appointed during Ramsay MacDonald's first term in office. His modernist views, in particular objection to Reservation, led to conflict with the Anglo-Catholics in his diocese ["The Times", Thursday, Dec 18, 1924; pg. 15; Issue 43838; col F: "Dr. Barnes And His Critics. An Expression Of Confidence". Letter of support, to the Editor, signed by W. R. INGE ; E. A. BURROUGHS; W. L. PAIGE COX; J. H. THORPE; R. H. CHARLES; H. LOWTHER CLARKE; V. F. STORR,; T. GUY ROGERS; R. H. KENNETT,; J. F. BETHUNE-BAKER,. ] .

Ernest William Barnes was the eldest of four sons of John Starkie Barnes and Jane Elizabeth Kerry, both elementary school head-teachers. In 1883 Barnes' father was appointed Inspector of Schools in Birmingham, a position that he occupied throughout the rest of his working life. Barnes was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham and in 1893 went up to Cambridge as a Scholar of Trinity College. He was bracketed Second Wrangler in 1896 and was placed in the first division of the first class in Part II of the Mathematical Tripos in 1897. In the following year he was awarded the first Smith's Prize and was duly elected to a Trinity Fellowship. He was appointed a lecturer in mathematics in 1902, junior dean in 1906-08 and a tutor in 1908. He graduated Sc.D. of the University of Cambridge in 1907 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1909.

In the same year he became a lecturer in mathematics, Barnes was ordained deacon by the Bishop of London and from 1906 to 1908 was Junior Dean of Trinity. In 1915, Barnes left Cambridge, and his career as a professional mathematician, upon his appointment as Master of the Temple in London. This was followed in 1918 by a Canonry of Westminster Abbey and finally, in 1924, by consecration to the Bishopric of Birmingham, an office he held until 1952, when he had to retire on account of ill-health. He died at his home in Sussex at the age of 79, survived by his wife and two sons.

Barnes' episcopate was marked by a series of controversies stemming from his outspoken views and, rather surprisingly for someone who held such high office in the Church, often unorthodox religious beliefs ["The Times", Monday, Aug 31, 1925; pg. 7; Issue 44054; col D: "Magical Views Of The Eucharist. Dr. Barnes At Oxford." (Conference of Modern Churchmen. ] . In 1940 he lost a libel case in which he had attacked the Cement Makers' Federation for allegedly holding up the supply of cement, for their own profit, at a time of great national need in the construction of air-raid shelters ["The Times", Saturday, May 10, 1941; pg. 2; Issue 48922; col F: "High Court Of Justice King's Bench Division, Slander Action Against A Bishop: £1,600 Awarded, Alpha Cement, Limited, And Others v. Bishop Of Birmingham" ] . Undaunted by this set-back, Barnes returned to his accusations on the cement ring in a speech he delivered in the House of Lords the following year, in which he claimed that powerful business concerns were using libel and slander action to suppress criticism. As a theological author, Barnes' book in 1947, entitled "The Rise of Christianity", aroused such fierce opposition and criticism from more orthodox members of the Church, that it was strongly suggested he should renounce his episcopal office, a hint which Barnes did not take.

He was an uncompromising pacifist [In 1936, his sermon "Blessed are the peacemakers" was published as a pamphlet by the Council of Christian Pacifist Groups, 1936 (Copy in British Library) ] , and spoke out against British participation in the Second World War. He also expressed eugenic views ["The Times", Tuesday, May 22, 1951; pg. 2; Issue 52007; col C: "Menace Of Excessive Populations Dr. Barnes On Inferior Human Strains" - report of the Cavendish lecture, 1951, to the Medico-chirurical Society of West London. ] .

ee also

*Barnes integral

Further reading

*Obituary in "The Times", Monday, Nov 30, 1953; pg. 10; Issue 52792; col D: "Dr. E. W. Barnes The Christian Faith And Science".

Notes

References

*Citation | last1=Whittaker | first1=Edmund T. | title=Ernest William Barnes, 1874--1953 | url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/769195 | id=MathSciNet | id = 0067013 | year=1954 | journal=Obit. Notices Roy. Soc. London | volume=9 | pages=15–25

External links

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Persondata
NAME= Barnes, Ernest William
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=E.W.Birmingham (in letters to the Editor of "The Times".
SHORT DESCRIPTION= English mathematician and clergyman
DATE OF BIRTH= 1 April 1874
PLACE OF BIRTH= Birmingham, England
DATE OF DEATH= 29 November 1953
PLACE OF DEATH= Sussex, England


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  • Ernest William Barnes — (* 1. April 1874 in Birmingham, England; † 29. November 1953 in Sussex) war ein englischer Mathematiker und Theologe. Barnes Eltern waren Lehrer, und Barnes ging in Birmingham zur Schule. 1893 begann er sein Studium der Mathematik am Trinity… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Barnes (disambiguation) — William Barnes may refer to:* Ernest William Barnes (1874 1953), English mathematician and scientist * William Barnes (1801 1886), English writer, poet, minister, and philologist * William Barnes (bishop) (16th century), Bishop of London *… …   Wikipedia

  • Barnes, Ernest William — (1874–1953)    Bishop and Theologian.    Educated at the University of Cambridge, Barnes taught mathematics at the university before being ordained in 1902. He became a Canon of Westminster in 1918 and Bishop of Birmingham in 1924. He is… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Barnes, Ernest William — ▪ British bishop born April 1, 1874, Birmingham, Warwickshire [now in West Midlands], Eng. died Nov. 29, 1953, Hurstpierpont, Sussex [now in West Sussex]       controversial Anglican bishop of Birmingham, a leader in the Church of England… …   Universalium

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  • Barnes integral — In mathematics, a Barnes integral or Mellin–Barnes integral is a contour integral involving a product of gamma functions. They were introduced by Ernest William Barnes (1908, 1910). They are closely related to generalized hypergeometric… …   Wikipedia

  • Barnes G-function — In mathematics, the Barnes G function (typically denoted G ( z )) is a function that is an extension of superfactorials to the complex numbers. It is related to the Gamma function, the K function and the Glaisher Kinkelin constant, and was named… …   Wikipedia

  • Barnes (name) — Barnes is an Anglo Saxon surname [cite web |url=http://www.surnamedb.com/surname.aspx?name=Barnes |title=Surnames: Barnes |accessdate=2008 04 21 |publisher=surnamedb.com] and rare given name. It may refer to: Surname *Barnes, Albert (1798 1870),… …   Wikipedia

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