- Mind-body dichotomy
René Descartes' illustration of mind/body dualism. Inputs are passed on by the sensory organs to the epiphysis in the brain and from there to the immaterial spirit.]
dichotomyis the view that "mental" phenomena are, in some respects, "non-physical" (distinct from the body).In a religious sense, it refers to the separation of body and soul. The mind-body dichotomy is the starting point of Dualism, and became conceptualized in the form known to the modern Western world in René Descartes's philosophy, though it also surfaced in pre-Aristotelian concepts and in Avicennian philosophy. [citation|title=Forming the Mind: Essays on the Internal Senses and the Mind/Body Problem from Avicenna to the Medical Enlightenment|publisher= Springer Science+Business Media|date=9/30/2007|isbn=9781402060830]
This view of reality leads one to consider the corporeal as little valued" [http://human-nature.com/rmyoung/papers/pap102h.html The mind-body problem] " by Robert M. Young] and trivial. The rejection of the mind-body dichotomy is found in French
Structuralism, and is a position that generally characterized post-war French philosophy. [Turner 96, p.76] The absence of an empirically identifiable meeting point between the non-physical mind and its physical extension has proven problematic to dualism and many modern philosophers of mind maintain that the mind is not something separate from the body.cite book
last = Kim
first = J.
editor = Honderich, Ted
title = Problems in the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford Companion to Philosophy
year = 1995
publisher = Oxford University Press
location = Oxford
doi = ] These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, particularly in the fields of
sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychologyand the various neurosciences.Pinel, J. "Psychobiology", (1990) Prentice Hall, Inc. ISBN 8815071741] LeDoux, J. (2002) "The Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are", New York:Viking Penguin. ISBN 8870787958] Russell, S. and Norvig, P. "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach", New Jersey:Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131038052] Dawkins, R. "The Selfish Gene" (1976) Oxford:Oxford University Press. ISBN]
Platoargued that, as the body is from the material world, the soul is from the world of ideas and thus immortal. He believed the soul was temporarily united with the body and would only be separated at death where it would then go back to the world of forms. As the soul does not exist in time and space as the body does, it can therefore access universal truths from the world of ideas.
* Dualism - the mind is distinct from the body.
Materialism- the mind is an extension of the body (eg. chemical reactions).
Idealism- reality is in the mind.
The aim of the soul is to out survive the body where it will return to the world of ideas, along with the identity of the individual.Fact|date=October 2007
Notes and citations
*Turner, Bryan S. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=K_8WxOqOWtMCThe Body and Society: Exploration in social theory] " 1996
Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of artificial intelligence
Dualism (philosophy of mind)
The Mind's I, A book on the subject.
Strange loop, A conceptual framework of thoughts about the self.
*" [http://human-nature.com/rmyoung/papers/pap102h.html The mind-body problem] " by Robert M. Young
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