- Francisco Salamone
Francisco Salamone (1897-1959) was an Argentine architect who between 1936 and 1940, during the
Infamous Decade, built more than 60 municipal buildings with elements of Art Decostyle in 25 rural communities on the Argentine Pampaswithin the Buenos Aires Province. These buildings were some of the first examples of modern architecture in rural Argentine.
Born on 5 June 1897 in
Buenos Aires, Salamone was one of the four sons of an architect from Catania, Sicily. After leaving the Otto Krause Technical Schoolin Buenos Aireshe continued his studies in the National University of Córdobawhere he graduated in 1917 with a degree in architecture and civil engineeing.
Salamone married the daughter of the British Consul in Bahia Blanca Adolfina Croft with whom he had four children, Ricardo, Roberto, Annie and Stella Maris. He became a good friend of Dr.
Manuel A. Fresco, a conservative politician who was governor of the Province of Buenos Aires during the period 1936-1940. During Fresco's term of office a large number of new municipal buildings were built and the roads, irrigation and communications networks in the province were largelly improved. Although many of the new buildings were of little aesthetic value, those that Fresco commissioned Salamone were a notable and very personal combination of Art Deco, authoritarianism, functionalism, Italian Futorismo and propaganda on a vast scale. The use of reinforced concrete made it possible to construct buildings to a height that at that time made them symbols of municipal power and authority.
The rural towns in which Salamone's buildings appeared were 500km or more from
Buenos Airescity, and were either frontier towns, built at the end of the nineteenth century on the edge of Indian territory, or were situated at regular intervals along newly-built rail links. These towns were named after the colonels and generals who led the Conquest of the Desertand engineers who pioneered the building of the railways in this part of the Province.
When Fresco's term as Provincial governor came to an end in 1940, Salamone and his family moved back to
Buenos Aires, were he designed just two more buildings in Rationist style. He died on 8 August 1959, relatively forgotten, but leaving behind him a monumental architectural inheritance on the Argentine pampas.
Salamone's work comprised three types of municipal buildings:
*Town Halls: these are characterised by their massive proportions and high tower, taller than the local church tower, to symbolise the advance of civilisation over the Pampas and recalled both the medievil "palazzi comunali" and the designs of
Mussolini's Italy. These buildings were clearly intended to be the centre of urban life. Examples are to be found in Carlos Pellegrini, Alberti, Carhué, Guamini, Adolfo Alsina, Laprida, Rauch, Balcarce, Tornquist, Puán and Coronel Pringles.
*Cemetery Portals: these were also characterised by their massive proportions. Examples can be found in Saldungaray, Laprida, Azul and Balcarce.
*Slauterhouses: these are functional in design, on the outskirts of towns, and have become obsolete with the introduction of modern butchery techniques and the advent of cold-storage plants. Examples can be found in
Tres Lomas, Balcarce, Carhué, Coronel Pringles (whose tower is in the form of the blade of a knife), Azul, Laprida, Vedia and Carlos Pelegrini.
*Alberto Bellucci, "Monumental Art Deco in the Pampas: The Urban Art of Francisco Salamone", J. Decorative & Propaganda Arts, Argentine Theme Issue, 1992.
* [http://franciscosalamone.blogspot.com Photos and opinions by
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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