Richmond, Indiana

Richmond, Indiana

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Richmond, Indiana
settlement_type = City
nickname =

imagesize =
image_caption =


imagesize =
image_caption =


mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location in the state of Indiana

mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Indiana
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Wayne
subdivision_type3 = Township
subdivision_name3 = Wayne
government_type =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Sarah L. "Sally" Hutton (D)
area_note =
established_date =
area_magnitude = 1 E7
area_total_km2 = 60.3
area_land_km2 = 60.1
area_water_km2 = 0.2
population_as_of = 2000
population_note =
population_total = 39124
population_density_km2 = 650.8
timezone = EST
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
area_total_sq_mi = 23.3
area_land_sq_mi = 23.2
area_water_sq_mi = 0.1
elevation_m = 299
elevation_ft = 981
latd = 39 |latm = 49 |lats = 49 |latNS = N
longd = 84 |longm = 53 |longs = 26 |longEW = W
website =
postal_code_type = ZIP codes
postal_code = 47374-47375
area_code = 765
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 18-64260GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0441976GR|3
footnotes =

Richmond (pronEng|ˈrɪtʃmənd) is a city in Wayne Township, Wayne County, in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. It is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because some early jazz records originated there at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. [Starr Gennett Foundation,, URL accessed May 29, 2006.] Richmond is the county seat of Wayne County. The city's 2000 population was 39,124. In the 1990s, Richmond's population declined by 1.6 percent. [ [ Richmond, Indiana (IN) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex offenders ] ]


Richmond was settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River in 1806 by Quaker families from North Carolina. John Smith and David Hoover were among the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions including Friends United Meeting, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion.

Richmond is believed to have been the smallest community in the United States with a professional opera company and symphony orchestra. The Whitewater Opera has since closed its doors but the Richmond Symphony Orchestra is a source of community pride. Will Earhart formed the first complete high school orchestra in Richmond in 1899. A later orchestra director, Joseph E. Maddy went on to found what is now known as the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan.

A significant group of artists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries came to be known as the Richmond Group. The list of artists includes John Elwood Bundy, Charles Conner, George Herbert Baker, Maude Kaufman Eggemeyer and John Albert Seaford among others. The Richmond Art Museum has an outstanding collection of regional and American art. [Richmond Art Museum,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.] Many consider the most significant painting in the collection to be a self portrait of Indiana-born William Merritt Chase. [Self-portrait: The Artist in his Studio, 1916,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]

Richmond was once known as "the lawnmower capital" because of the lawn mowers manufactured there from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. Manufacturers included Davis, Motomower, Dille-McGuire and F&N. The farm machinerybuilder Gaar-Scott was based in Richmond.

In the 1920s, Indiana had the strongest Ku Klux Klan organization in the country under Grand Dragon D. C. Stephenson, with control over the state legislature and an ally in Governor Ed Jackson. [Indiana State Library, Ku Klux Klan Resources from the Indiana Division,, URL accessed May 30, 2006] At its height, national membership during the second Klan movement reached 1.5 million, with 300,000 from Indiana.Ku Klux Klan, Wayne County, Indiana Records, 1916–1933,, URL accessed on May 29, 2006.] Records show that Richmond (home to Whitewater Klan #60) and Wayne County were Klan strongholds, with up to 45 percent of the county's white males having been Klan members. [Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928, Leonard J. Moore, North Carolina Press, 1997.] At the same time Gennett Records was recording important black jazz artists, [How the Early Jazz Captured by Gennett Influenced the Shape of Things to Come,, URL accessed May 29, 2006.] it also produced private-label contract recordings for the Ku Klux Klan. [Gennett Numerical Series,, URL accesses May 29, 1006,] An aspect of official racial segregation existed in Richmond as late as 1965 when the city ended its policy of restricting black firefighters to one station and limiting the promotion opportunities of firefighters and police officers.

After starting out in nearby Union City, Wayne Agricultural Works moved to Richmond. Wayne was a manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles, including "kid hacks", a precursor of the motorized school bus. Beginning in the early 1930s through the 1940s, several automobile designers and manufacturers were located in Richmond. Among the automobiles manufactured there was the "Richmond" which was built by the Wayne Works, the "Rodefeld", the "Davis", the "Pilot", the Westcott and the Crosley.

In the 1950s, Wayne Works became Wayne Corporation, a well-known bus and school bus manufacturer, and relocated to a site adjacent to Interstate 70 in 1967. The company was a leader in school bus safety innovations, but closed in 1992 during a period of school bus manufacturing industry consolidations.

Richmond was known as the Rose City because of the many varieties once grown there by Hill's Roses in several sprawling complexes of greenhouses. The company once had about 34 acres under glass. The Richmond Rose Festival honored the rose industry and was a popular summer attraction.

Richmond is located on the National Road, [Road through the WildernessThe Making of the National Road,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.] which became part of the system of National Auto Trails. The highway is now known as U.S. Highway 40. One of the extant Madonna of the Trail monuments was dedicated at Richmond on October 28, 1928 [Madonna of the Trail,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.] The monument sits in a corner of Glen Miller Park adjacent to U.S. 40.

On April 6, 1968, several downtown blocks were destroyed or damaged by a natural gas explosion and fire, killing 41 people and injuring more than 150. [Death in a Sunny Street : The Civil Defense Story of the Richmond, Indiana Disaster, April 6, 1968,, URL accessed May 29, 2006.] Thereafter, the main street through downtown was closed to traffic and the Downtown Promenade was built in 1972 (and later expanded in 1978). The five-block pedestrian mall was later torn down and the street reopened to traffic in 1997 as part of an urban revitalization effort.

A Powerball lottery ticket sold in Richmond won approximately $314 million (annuity value) in the August 25, 2007 drawing. In 1998, a group of 13 machine-shop workers from Ohio won Powerball on a ticket that had also been purchased in Richmond. It won $295.7 million (annuity). The two tickets were sold at two different Speedway convenience stores about three miles apart; both sets of winners also chose the cash option.


Richmond is noted for its historic architecture. In 2003, a book entitled "Richmond Indiana: Its Physical Development and Aesthetic Heritage to 1920" by Cornell University architectural historians, Michael and Mary Raddant Tomlan, was published by the Indiana Historical Society. This work is the result of twenty five years of research on Richmond's growth and development. Particularly notable buildings are the 1902 Pennsylvania Railroad Station designed by Daniel Burnham and the 1893 Wayne County Court House designed by James W. McLaughlin of Cincinnati. Local architects of note include John A. Hasecoster, William S. Kaufman and Stephen O. Yates. Five large districts and several individual buildings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record.

Educational institutions

*Richmond High School includes the Richmond Art Museum and Civic Hall Performing Arts Center and the Tiernan Center, America's 5th largest high school gym.
* [ Seton Catholic High School] (founded 2002), a junior and senior high school, is the area's only religious high school. It is based in the former home of St. Andrew High School (1899-1936) and, more recently, St. Andrew Elementary School, adjacent to St. Andrew Church of the [ Richmond Catholic Community] .
*Richmond has four colleges: Earlham College, Indiana University East, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana and the Purdue University School of Technology.
*Richmond is home to two seminaries: Earlham School of Religion (Quaker) and Bethany Theological Seminary (Church of the Brethren)

Religious groups

*Richmond is the headquarters of the Friends United Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).


Richmond is located at coor dms|39|49|49|N|84|53|26|W|city (39.830189, -84.890668)GR|1.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.3 square miles (60.3 km²), of which, 23.2 square miles (60.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (0.26%) is water.


As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, and 9,918 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile (650.8/km²). There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2/sq mi (293.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, and 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population.

There were 16,287 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, and the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.


Richmond is served by Interstate 70 at exits 149, 151, 153, and 156.


The daily newspaper is the Gannett-owned Palladium-Item.

Full-power radio stations include WKBV, WFMG, WQLK, WHON, WZRP (formerly WVXR), and Earlham College's student-run public radio station WECI. Richmond is also served by several translator stations repeated from WCDR on 95.3 and 90.7 and WJYW which is repeated on 94.5 and 97.7. Area NPR radio stations include WBSH in Hagerstown and WMUB in Oxford, OH.

Richmond is considered to be within the Dayton, Ohio television market and has one full-power television station, WKOI, which is affiliated with TBN. The city also has one county-wide PEG access cable television station, Whitewater Community Television.

Points of interest

* Hayes Arboretum
* Wayne County Historical Museum
* Richmond Art Museum
* Indiana Football Hall of Fame
* Abram and Agnes Gaar Mansion (house museum)
* Joseph Moore Museum at Earlham College
* Glen Miller Park and Madonna of the Trail statue
* Old Richmond Historic District
* Starr Historic District
* Richmond Railroad Station Historic District
* Reeveston Place Historic District
* East Main Street-Glen Miller Park Historic District
* Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church [] (Louis Comfort Tiffany-designed interior and windows, Hook and Hastings organ)
* Bethel AME Church (oldest AME church in Indiana: founded 1868)
* Old National Road Welcome Center (convention and tourism bureau)
* Whitewater Gorge Park and Gennett Walk of Fame
* Cardinal Greenway hiking trail
* Morrisson Reeves Library and historical archive
* Marceline Jones gravesite, Earlham Cemetery (Jim Jones's wife, who died in the Peoples Temple mass suicide)
* Richmond Civic Theatre (plays, classic movies, and children's theater)
* Madonna of the Trail statue at Glen Miller Park

Notable Richmondites

* May Aufderheide, ragtime composer
* Woody Austin (basketball), Former basketball player at Richmond High School on the State Runner-up teams and on the Purdue University men's team
* Chad Austin, Former basketball player at Richmond High School, was on the state championship team in 1992 and played for Purdue University's Men's basketball team
* Baby Huey (singer), popular music artist
* Polly Bergen (Nellie Paulina Burgin), actress [Polly Bergen,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* Clark R. Bradley, rodeo professional [Clark Bradley,, URL accessed October 28, 2006.]
* Timmy Brown, former NFL running back and actor
* Janet Bolle Carl, head golf coach, University of Cincinnati, 2006 LPGA Coach of the Year
*John Wilbur Chapman, Evangelist
* Al Cobine, jazz musician ["Really Good Music": Al Cobine,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Vice Admiral Terry Cross, Vice Commandant, United States Coast Guard
* David W. Dennis, U.S. Congressman
* George Duning, Oscar-nominated composer ["Space Age Pop Music": George Duning,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Weeb Ewbank, coach of the 1958 and 1959 NFL champion Baltimore Colts and the Super Bowl III champion New York Jets [Weeb Ewbank,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* Jack Everly, pops conductor, Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra
* Vagas Ferguson, NFL player
* Paul Flatley, former NFL Rookie-of-the-Year (Minnesota Vikings)
* William Dudley Foulke, lawyer, author
* Norman Foster actor, director [FindAGrave: Norman Foster,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Harry "Singin' Sam" Frankel, radio star, minstrel [FindAGrave: Harry Frankel,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Richard T. Ginman, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy
*Mary Haas, linguist
* Jeff Hamilton, jazz drummer [Jazz at Newport 2006,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Del Harris, professional basketball coach
* Micajah C. Henley, roller skate maker
* Charles A. Hufnagel, M.D. artificial heart valve inventor [Mendel Medal recipient: Charles A. Hufnagel,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Steven C. Jackson, Guitarist
* Dominic James, basketball player at Marquette University, 2006 Big East Rookie of the Year
* C. Francis Jenkins, television pioneer
* Harold Jones, jazz drummer [Harold Jones' web site,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* Jim Jones, founder-leader of Peoples Temple
* Melvin "Deacon" Jones, blues organist
* Harry Keenan actor [Harry Keenan,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Esther Kellner, author [Esther A. Kellner (1908-1998),, URL accessed May 29, 2006.]
* Daniel Kinsey, Olympic gold medalist
* Margaret Landon, author of The King and I [Wheaton College Special Collections,, 2006.]
* Johnny Logan (basketball), professional basketball player
* Joe Longstreth, harpist, actor ["Naples Illustrated", Past Lives,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Mike Lopresti, award-winning sports reporter for Gannett Company.
* Lamar Lundy, football player, one of the L.A. Rams Fearsome Foursome
* Kenneth MacDonald, actor [Kenneth MacDonald,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Daniel W. Marmon, industrialist
* Rolando Mays, hip hop music producer
* Dan Mitrione, counterinsurgency specialist for U.S. government
* Oliver P. Morton, Indiana's Civil War Governor [Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* Rich Mullins, Christian musician
*Addison H. Nordyke, industrialist
* William Paul Quinn, African American minister
* Daniel G. Reid, industrialist/philanthropist
*Jonathan Clark Rogers, president of the University of Georgia
* Ned Rorem, Pulitzer prize-winning composer [Official Ned Rorem Website,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* L. Lena Sawner, educator [Uncrowned Queens: L. Lena Sawyer,, URL accessed May 29, 3006.]
* Chris Schenkel, sports broadcaster, ABC Sports [American Sportscasters Hall of Fame Inductee,, URL accessed September 9, 2006.]
* Wendell Stanley, Nobel Prize winner [Wendell M. Stanley,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* D. Elton Trueblood, Quaker theologian [D. Elton Trueblood,, URL accessed May 30, 2006.]
* Jon Jennings, NBA basketball coach (Boston Celtics)
*Bo Van Pelt, professional golfer
*Darrell M. West, author and Brookings Institution political scientist
*Burton J. Westcott, automobile manufacturer
* Gaar Williams, cartoonist
* Carol Lou Woodward, jazz pianist, former leader of the Carol Lou Trio [Carol Lou Trio,, URL accessed January 20, 2008.]
* Orville Wright, aviation pioneer
* Wilbur Wright, aviation pioneerThe Wright Brother,, URL accessed May 30, 2006]

ister cities

*flagicon|RUS Serpukhov (Russia)
*flagicon|JPN Daito-Cho, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

There have been various cultural exchanges between Richmond and its sister cities, the most recent of which took place in 2001.


External links

* [ City of Richmond]
* [ The Golden Era of Indiana (1900-1941); Northern Indiana Center for History]
* [ Hayes Aboretum]
* [ Morrison-Reeves Library Digital Collection]
* [ Palladium-Item newspaper]
* [ Penny Postcards from Indiana]
* [ Richmond Civic Theatre]
* [ Richmond Indiana]
* [ The Richmond News Review]
* [ Richmond/Wayne County Convention and Tourism Bureau Inc.]
* [ Waynet]

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