- October Crisis
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The October Crisis (French: La crise d'octobre) was a series of events triggered by two kidnappings of government officials by members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) during October 1970 in the province of Quebec, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.
The circumstances ultimately culminated in the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act in Canada's history, done by Governor General of Canada Roland Michener at the direction of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, having been requested by the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa, and the Mayor of Montreal, Jean Drapeau.
The invocation of the act resulted in widespread deployment of Canadian Forces troops throughout Quebec, and in Ottawa gave the appearance that martial law had been imposed, although the military remained in a support role to the civil authorities of Quebec. The police were also enabled with far-reaching powers, and they arrested and detained, without bail, 497 individuals, all but 62 of whom were later released without charges.
At the time, opinion polls throughout Canada, including in Quebec, showed widespread support for the use of the War Measures Act. The response, however, was criticized at the time and subsequently by a number of prominent leaders, including René Lévesque, Robert Stanfield, and Tommy Douglas, who believed the actions to be excessive and the precedent to suspend civil liberties dangerous. The criticism was reinforced by evidence that police officials had abused their powers and detained, without cause, prominent artists and intellectuals associated with the sovereignty movement.
The events of October 1970 galvanized support against violence in efforts for Quebec sovereignty and highlighted the movement towards political means of attaining greater autonomy and independence, including support for the sovereigntist Parti Québécois, which went on to form the provincial government in 1976.
From 1963 to 1970 the Quebec nationalist group Front de libération du Québec had detonated over 95 bombs. While mailboxes—particularly in the affluent and predominantly Anglophone city of Westmount—were common targets, the largest single bombing was of the Montreal Stock Exchange on February 13, 1969, which caused extensive damage and injured 27 people. Other targets included Montreal City Hall, Royal Canadian Mounted Police recruitment offices, railway tracks, and army installations. FLQ members, in a strategic move, had stolen several tons of dynamite from military and industrial sites, and, financed by bank robberies, they threatened the public through their official communication organ, known as La Cognée, that more attacks were to come.
By 1970, 23 members of the FLQ were in prison, including four members convicted of murder. On February 26, 1970, two men in a panel truck– including Jacques Lanctôt– were arrested in Montreal when they were discovered with a sawed-off shotgun and a communique announcing the kidnapping of the Israeli consul. In June, police raided a home in the small community of Prévost, north of Montreal in the Laurentian mountains, and found firearms, ammunition, 300 pounds (140 kg) of dynamite, detonators, and the draft of a ransom note to be used in the kidnapping of the United States consul.
- October 5: Montreal, Quebec: Two members of the "Liberation Cell" of the FLQ kidnap British Trade Commissioner James Cross from his house. The kidnappers were disguised as delivery men bringing a package for his recent birthday. Once the maid let them in, they pulled out a rifle and a revolver and kidnapped Cross. This was followed by a communique to the authorities that contained the kidnappers' demands, which included the exchange of Cross for "political prisoners", a number of convicted or detained FLQ members, and the CBC broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto. The terms of the ransom note were the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U.S. consul. At the time, the police did not connect the two.
- October 8: Broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto in all French- and English-speaking media outlets in Quebec.
- October 10: Montreal, Quebec: Members of the Chenier Cell approach the home of the Minister of Labour of the province of Quebec, Pierre Laporte, while he was playing football with his nephew on his front lawn. Members of the "Chenier cell" of the FLQ kidnapped Laporte.
- October 11: The CBC broadcasts a letter from captivity from Pierre Laporte to the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa.
- October 13: Prime Minister Trudeau is interviewed by the CBC with respect to the military presence. In a combative interview, Trudeau asks the reporter what he would do in his place, and when Trudeau was asked how far he would go he replies "Just watch me".
- October 14: Sixteen prominent Quebec personalities, including René Lévesque and Claude Ryan, call for negotiating "exchange of the two hostages for the political prisoners". FLQ's lawyer Robert Lemieux urges University of Montreal students to boycott classes in support of FLQ.
- October 15: Quebec City: The Government of Quebec, solely responsible for law and order, formally requisitions the intervention of the Canadian army in "aid of the civil power", as is its right alone under the National Defence Act. All three opposition parties, including the Parti Québécois rise in the National Assembly and agree with the decision. On the same day, separatist groups are permitted to speak at the Université de Montréal and Robert Lemieux organizes 3,000 student rally in Paul Sauvé Arena to show support for the FLQ; labour leader Michel Chartrand announces that popular support for FLQ is rising and "We are going to win because there are more boys ready to shoot members of Parliament than there are policemen.". The rally frightens many Canadians, who view it as a possible prelude to outright insurrection in Quebec;
- October 16: Premier Bourassa formally requests that the government of Canada grant the government of Quebec "emergency powers" that allow them to "apprehend and keep in custody" individuals. This resulted in the implementation of the War Measures Act, which allowed the suspension of habeas corpus, giving wide-reaching powers of arrest to police. The City of Montreal had already made such a request the day before. These measures came into effect at 4:00 a.m. Prime Minister Trudeau made a broadcast announcing the imposition of the War Measures Act.
- October 17: Montreal, Quebec: The Chenier cell of the FLQ announces that hostage Pierre Laporte has been executed. He is strangled to death, and his body is stuffed in the trunk of a car and abandoned in the bush near Saint-Hubert Airport, a few miles from Montreal. A communique to police advising that Pierre Laporte had been executed referred to him derisively as the "minister of unemployment and assimilation". In another communique issued by the "Liberation cell" holding James Cross, his kidnappers declared that they were suspending indefinitely the death sentence against James Cross, that they would not release him until their demands were met, and that he would be executed if the "fascist police" discovered them and tried to intervene. The demands they made were: 1) The Publication of the FLQ manifesto. 2) The release of 23 political prisoners. 3) An airplane that will take them to either Cuba or Algeria (both countries that they felt a strong connection to because of their struggle against Colonialism and Imperialism). 4. The re-hiring of the "gars de Lapalme". 5) A voluntary tax of 500,000 dollars that would be aboard the plane when it left. 6. The name of the informer who had sold out the FLQ activists earlier in the year.
- October 18: While denouncing the acts of “subversion and terrorism – both of which are so tragically contrary to the best interests of our people”, columnist, politician, and future Premier of Quebec, René Lévesque, criticizes the War Measures Act: “Until we receive proof (about how large the revolutionary army is) to the contrary we will believe that such a minute, numerically unimportant fraction is involved, that rushing into the enforcement of the War Measures Act was a panicky and altogether excessive reaction, especially when you think of the inordinate length of time they want to maintain this regime.”
- November 6: Police raid the hiding place of the FLQ's Chenier cell. Although three members escaped the raid, Bernard Lortie was arrested and charged with the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte.
- December 3: Montreal, Quebec: After being held hostage for 62 days, kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross is released by the FLQ Liberation cell terrorists after negotiations with police. Simultaneously, the five known kidnappers, Marc Carbonneau, Yves Langlois, Jacques Lanctôt, Jacques Cossette-Trudel and his wife, Louise Lanctôt, are granted their request for safe passage to Cuba by the government of Canada after approval by Fidel Castro. They are flown to Cuba by a Canadian Forces aircraft. One of them is the same Jacques Lanctôt who earlier that year had been arrested and then released on bail for the attempted kidnapping of the Israeli consul.
- December 28: Saint-Luc, Quebec: The three remaining members of the Chenier Cell still at large, Paul Rose, Jacques Rose, and Francis Simard, are arrested after being found hiding in a 6 m tunnel in the rural farming community. They would be charged with the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte.
War Measures Act and military involvement
When CBC reporter Tim Ralfe asked how far he was willing to go to stop the FLQ, Trudeau replied: "Just watch me". Three days later, on October 16, the Cabinet under his chairmanship advised the Governor General to invoke the War Measures Act at the request of the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa, and the Mayor of Montreal, Jean Drapeau. The provisions took effect at 4:00 a.m., and soon, hundreds of suspected FLQ members and sympathizers were taken into custody. The War Measures Act gave police the power to arrest people without warrant, and 497 people were arrested, including Pauline Julien.
This act was imposed only after the negotiations with the FLQ had broken off and the Premier of Quebec was facing the next stage in the FLQ's terrorist agenda. At the time, opinion polls in Quebec and the rest of Canada showed overwhelming support for the War Measures Act; in a December 1970 Gallup Poll, it was noted that 89% of English-speaking Canadians supported the introduction of the War Measures Act, and 86% of French-speaking Canada supported its introduction. They respectively had 6% and 9% disapproving, the difference being undecided. Since then, however, the government's use of the War Measures Act in peacetime has been a subject of debate in Canada as it gave police sweeping powers of arrest and detention.
Simultaneously, under provisions quite separate from the War Measures Act and much more commonly used, the Solicitor-General of Quebec requisitioned the deployment of the military from the Chief of the Defence Staff in accordance with the National Defence Act. Troops from Quebec bases and elsewhere in the country were dispatched, under the direction of the Sûreté du Québec (Quebec's provincial police force), to guard vulnerable points as well as prominent individuals at risk. This freed the police to pursue more proactive tasks in dealing with the crisis.
Outside Quebec, mainly in the Ottawa area, the federal government deployed troops under its own authority to guard federal offices and employees. The combination of the increased powers of arrest granted by the War Measures Act, and the military deployment requisitioned and controlled by the government of Quebec, gave every appearance that martial law had been imposed. A significant difference, however, is that the military remained in a support role to the civil authorities (in this case, Quebec authorities) and never had a judicial role. Also the War Measures Act played a role in restricting civil rights. It still allowed for the criticism of the government and the Parti Québécois was able to go about its everyday business free of any restrictions, including the criticism of the government and the War Measures Act. Nevertheless, the sight of tanks on the lawns of the federal parliament was disconcerting to many Canadians. Moreover, police officials sometimes abused their powers and detained without cause prominent artists and intellectuals associated with the sovereignty movement.
Once the War Measures Act was in place, arrangements were made for all detainees to see legal counsel. There were cases, however few, of people having cause to be upset by the method of their interrogation; however, the majority of those interviewed after had little cause to complain and several even commented on the courteous nature of the interrogations and searches, In addition, the Quebec Ombudsman, Louis Marceau, was instructed to hear complaints of detainees, and the Quebec government agreed to pay damages to any person unjustly arrested. On February 3, 1971, John Turner, Minister of Justice of Canada, reported that 497 persons had been arrested under the War Measures Act, of whom 435 had already been released. The other 62 were charged, of which 32 were accused of crimes of such seriousness that a Quebec Superior Court judge refused them bail.
Pierre Laporte was eventually found to have been murdered by his captors while James Cross was freed after 60 days as a result of negotiations with the kidnappers who requested exile to Cuba rather than facing trial in Quebec. The cell members responsible for Laporte were arrested and charged with kidnapping and first-degree murder.
The response by the federal and provincial governments to the incident still sparks controversy. This is the only time that the War Measures Act had been put in place during peacetime in Canada. A few critics (most notably Tommy Douglas and some members of the New Democratic Party) believed that Trudeau was being excessive in advising the use of the War Measures Act to suspend civil liberties and that the precedent set by this incident was dangerous. Federal Progressive Conservative leader Robert Stanfield initially supported Trudeau's actions, but later regretted doing so. The size of the FLQ organization and the number of sympathizers in the public was not known. However, in its Manifesto, the FLQ stated: "In the coming year (Quebec Premier Robert) Bourassa will have to face reality; 100,000 revolutionary workers, armed and organized."[clarification needed] Given that declaration, along with seven years of bombings and the wording of their communiques throughout that time that strove to present an image of a powerful organization spread secretly throughout all sectors of society, the authorities took significant action.
Indeed, the events of October 1970 galvanized a loss of support for the violent wing of the Quebec separatist movement that had gained support over nearly ten years, and increased support for political means of attaining independence, including support for the separatist Parti Québécois, which went on to take power at the provincial level in 1976. After the defeat of the Meech Lake Accord, which sought to amend the Constitution of Canada to resolve the passage by a previous government of the Constitution Act 1982 without Quebec's ratification, a pro-independence political party, the Bloc Québécois, was also created at the federal level.
Cinema and television
- Action: The October Crisis of 1970, a 1973 feature-length documentary film by Robin Spry.
- Orders (Les Ordres), a historical film drama, directed in 1974 and based on the events of the October Crisis and the War Measures Act; concerning the effect it had on people in Quebec.
- Quebec director Pierre Falardeau shot in 1994 a movie titled Octobre which tells a version of the October Crisis based on a book by Francis Simard.
- Nô is partially set in Montreal during the October Crisis and features fictional FLQ members planning a bombing.
- CBC Television produced a two-hour documentary program Black October in 2000, in which the events of the crisis were discussed in great detail. The program featured interviews with former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, former Quebec justice minister Jérôme Choquette, and others.
- An 8-part miniseries about some of the incidents of the October Crisis titled October 1970 was released on October 12, 2006.
- In the Mid-Atlantic Sports Network series, "Orioles Classics", the footage shown of the 1970 World Series is the feed from the CBC. The World Series is often interrupted for updates on the "Cross Kidnapping".
- ^ "Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath – Quebec History". http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/chronos/october.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- ^ "Remembering Robert Standfield" (PDF). http://www.irpp.org/po/archive/feb04/McQueen.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- ^ "Top Ten Greatest Canadians – Tommy Douglas". Archived from the original on 2008-04-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20080425041156/http://www.cbc.ca/greatest/top_ten/nominee/douglas-tommy-know.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- ^ a b Fournier, Louis. FLQ: Anatomy of an Underground Movement, pg. 256
- ^ "The Globe and Mail: Series – Pierre Elliott Trudeau 1919–2000". Archived from the original on 2008-01-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080118071232/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/series/trudeau/jgray2_sep30.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. "Seven people had died and dozens had been injured. In retrospect, it seems impossible, but one bomb was planted somewhere in Quebec every 10 days."
- ^ "Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath – Quebec History". .marianopolis.edu. http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/chronos/october.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- ^ a b "Canada since 1945: power, politics ... - Google Books". Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=DMaS5cb7s8QC&pg=PA371&lpg=PA371&dq=%22Paul+Sauve+Arena%22+%2BFLQ&source=web&ots=PPdqOgqc8S&sig=vXQHZjinf4sohZbDXWY5Hn4fmNI&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPA371,M1. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- ^ "The October Crisis: Civil Liberties Suspended | CBC Archives". Archives.cbc.ca. http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-101-610/conflict_war/october_crisis/clip6. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- ^ "The Globe and Mail: Series – Pierre Elliott Trudeau 1919–2000". Archived from the original on 2008-01-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080118071232/http://www.theglobeandmail.com/series/trudeau/jgray2_sep30.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- ^ FLQ: The Anatomy of an Underground Movement
- ^ "Statement by René Lévesque on the War Measures Act - Quebec History". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. 1970-10-17. http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/docs/october/levesque.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- ^ Tetley, William (2007). The October Crisis, 1970: An Insiders View. McGill-Queens University Press. pp. 88. ISBN 0-7735-31181-1.
- ^ "Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath – Quebec History". http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/chronos/october.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "There was widespread editorial approval of the action taken by the federal government; only Claude Ryan, in Le Devoir, condemned it as did René Lévesque, leader of the Parti Québécois. Polls taken shortly afterwards, showed that there was as much as 92% approval for the action taken by the Federal government."
- ^ "Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath – Quebec History". http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/chronos/october.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "In a series of polls conducted over the next few weeks, public support for the course of action undertaken by the Government of Canada continued to be overwhelming (72 to 84% approval rate). In a poll conducted on December 19 by the Canadian Institute of Public Opinion, Canadians indicated that their opinion of Trudeau, Bourassa, Caouette and Robarts, who had all expressed strong support for the War Measures Act, was more favourable than before, while their view of Stanfield and Douglas, who had expressed reservations for the Act, was less favourable than previously."
- ^ Tetley, William. The October Crisis, 1970: An Insider's View, pg. 103.
- ^ Tetley, William (2007). The October Crisis, 1970: An Insiders View. McGill-Queens University Press. pp. 88. ISBN 0-7735-31181-1.
- ^ Tetley, William (2007). The October Crisis, 1970: An Insiders View. McGill-Queens University Press. pp. 88. ISBN 0-7735-31181-1.
- ^ "Quebec terrorists FLQ kidnapped 2 & began the Oct crisis". http://www.crimelibrary.com/terrorists_spies/terrorists/flq/11.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "Public opinion polls showed that nearly nine in 10 citizens – both Anglo and French-speaking – supported Trudeau's hardline tactics against the FLQ."
- ^ "Top Ten Greatest Canadians – Tommy Douglas". Archived from the original on 2008-04-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20080425041156/http://www.cbc.ca/greatest/top_ten/nominee/douglas-tommy-know.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "The decision to vote against the motion (which passed with a majority vote) was not viewed favourably; the NDP's approval rating dropped to seven per cent in public opinion polls. Still, Douglas maintained that Trudeau was going too far: "The government, I submit, is using a sledgehammer to crack a peanut.""
- ^ "Remembering Robert Standfield: A Good-Humoured and Gallant Man" (PDF). http://www.irpp.org/po/archive/feb04/McQueen.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-13. "That particular backing [of the War Measures Act] was Stanfield’s only regret in a long political life. He later admitted that he wished he’d joined his lone dissenting colleague, David MacDonald, who voted against the Public Order Temporary Measures Act when it came before the House that November."
- ^ Spry, Robin (1973). "Action: The October Crisis of 1970". Documentary film. National Film Board of Canada. http://www.nfb.ca/film/action_the_october_crisis_of_1970. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Tetley, William. (2006) The October Crisis, 1970 : An Insiders View McGill-Queen's University Press ISBN 0-7735-3118-1
- English, John (2009), Just Watch Me: The Life of Pierre Elliott Trudeau: 1968-2000, Alfred A. Knopf Canada, ISBN 9780676975239, http://books.google.ca/books?id=yD_EGgNzYCkC&lpg=PA73&dq=October%20Crisis&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q&f=true
- Guy Bouthillier and Édouard Cloutier. Trudeau's Darkest Hour: War Measures in Time of Peace | October 1970, Baraka Books, Montréal, 2010, 212 p. ISBN 978-1-926824-04-8.
- "The Events Preliminary to the Crisis" in chronological order – 1960 to October 5, 1970
- "The October Crisis per se" in chronological order – October 5 to December 29, 1970
- Documents on the October Crisis
- Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and of its aftermath
- Historical Site dedicated to the Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ) from an "indépendantist" perspective. (French)
- CBC Digital Archives – The October Crisis: Civil Liberties Suspended
- "Terrorism" from the Canadian Encyclopedia
- "War Measures Act Debate Oct 16, 1970" from the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation
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