Mount Holyoke College


Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College

Seal of Mount Holyoke College
Motto That our daughters may be as corner stones, polished after the similitude of a palace — Psalms 144:12
Established Seminary, 1837 (Seminary charter, 1836)
Seminary and College, (Collegiate charter) 1888
College, 1893
Type liberal arts women's college
Endowment $488.0 million[1]
President Lynn Pasquerella
Academic staff 200[2]
Students 2,200[3]
Location South Hadley, MA, USA
Campus 2,000 acres (8.1 km²), academic campus: 1,000 acres (4.0 km2)
Nickname MoHo, Holyoke, or MHC
Mascot Lyon
Website mtholyoke.edu
MtHolyokeFullLogo.png

Mount Holyoke College is a prestigious liberal arts college for women in South Hadley, Massachusetts. It was the first member of the Seven Sisters colleges, and served as a model for some of the others. Mount Holyoke is part of the Pioneer Valley's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

The school was originally founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. It received its collegiate charter in 1888 as Mount Holyoke Seminary and College and became Mount Holyoke College in 1893. Mount Holyoke's chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905.

Mount Holyoke's buildings were designed between 1896 and 1960. It has a Donald Ross-designed 18-hole golf course, The Orchards, which served as host to the U.S. Women's Open in 2004.[4] In 2009, Forbes rated it 47th in America's Best Colleges.[5] U.S. News and World Report lists Mount Holyoke as the 26th best liberal arts college in the United States in its 2011 rankings.[6] Mount Holyoke was also ranked #1 in the nation for Best Classroom Experience in the Princeton Review 2010–2011 rankings.[7]

Contents

History

Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1837
Mount Holyoke in 1887

Mount Holyoke's founder, Mary Lyon, is considered by many scholars to be an innovator in the area of women's education.[8] Her establishment of Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was part of a larger movement to create institutions of higher education for young women during the early half of the 19th century. Lyon's contemporaries include Sarah Pierce (Litchfield Female Academy, 1792); Catharine Beecher (Hartford Female Seminary, 1823); Zilpah P. Grant Banister (Ipswich Female Seminary, 1828). Prior to founding Mount Holyoke, Lyon contributed to the development of both Hartford Female Seminary and Ipswich Female Seminary. She was also involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary (now Wheaton College, Massachusetts) in 1834.[9] Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was originally chartered as a teaching seminary in 1836[10] and opened its doors to students on 8 November 1837. Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke.[11]

From its founding in 1837, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary "had no religious affiliation". However, "students were required to attend church services, chapel talks, prayer meetings, and Bible study groups. Twice a day teachers and students spent time in private devotions. Every dorm room had two large lighted closets to give roommates privacy during their devotions".[12] Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was the sister school to Andover Seminary. Some Andover graduates looked to marry students from the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before becoming missionaries because the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) required its missionaries to be married before starting their missions. By 1859 there were more than 60 missionary alumnae; by 1887 the school's alumnae comprised one-fifth of all female American missionaries for the ABCFM; and by the end of the century, 248 of its alumnae had entered the mission field.[13]

Mount Holyoke Female Seminary received its collegiate charter in 1888, becoming Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. In 1893 it became Mount Holyoke College. Mount Holyoke's chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905. It has been a sister school to Women's Christian College in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India since 1920. In the early 1970s Mount Holyoke had a long debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On 6 November 1971 the board of trustees voted to remain a women's college.[14]

On February 28, 1987, the United States Postal Service's Great Americans Series issued a postage stamp featuring Mary Lyon, in honor of Mount Holyoke's Sesquicentennial (Mount Holyoke's 150th anniversary).[15][16]

Academics

Majors, minors, and degrees

Mount Holyoke offers 49 departmental and interdepartmental majors, including the option to design a special major. The primary degree conferred is the bachelor of arts (BA) degree, for which students complete 128 semester credits (one standard course equals 4 credits). At least 68 credits must be earned from course work outside the major department, across the three curricular divisions: humanities, science and mathematics, and social sciences. Study of a foreign language and completion of a multicultural perspectives course are also required.[17]

In addition to the BA, Mount Holyoke offers a master’s degree in psychology.[18] Other programs include dual-degree programs in engineering with the California Institute of Technology, the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst;[19] the Frances Perkins Program,[20] for women over the age of 24 who wish to complete the requirements for a bachelor of arts degree; and the Postbaccalaureate Studies Program,[21] for students who have already earned an undergraduate degree and wish to complete additional course work in preparation for graduate work in medicine, nursing, veterinary medicine, dentistry, or physical therapy science.

Mount Holyoke’s membership in the Five College Consortium allows students to enroll in courses at Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. They may also complete one of 12 Five College Certificates—among them African studies, Buddhist studies, coastal and marine sciences, cognitive neuroscience, international relations, and Middle Eastern studies—in lieu of a minor.[22]

Academic centers

Four academic centers—the Weissman Center for Leadership and the Liberal Arts,[23] the McCulloch Center for Global Initiatives,[24] the Center for the Environment,[25] and the Science Center[26]—support the academic program through public lectures by visiting scholars, conferences on issues of pressing concern, mentoring and internship opportunities, and hands-on learning experiences. The Weissman Center’s Speaking, Arguing, and Writing Program[27] provides opportunities for developing leadership and communication skills, including the ability to effectively frame, articulate, and advocate positions. The Community-Based Learning Program[28] links students with community-based organizations in courses that combine analysis and action.

Study abroad

Mount Holyoke has study abroad programs and exchanges for full-year or semester study in France, Senegal, Costa Rica, Chile, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Germany, Spain, and the UK, as well as a summer program in China and January Term programs in the Republic of Georgia and South Africa. Each year more than 200 Mount Holyoke students, representing approximately 40 percent of the junior class, study for a semester or academic year at universities and programs abroad.[29]

Library

Mount Holyoke’s library includes more than 740,000 print volumes, 1,600 periodicals, and more than 140,000 electronic resources. Through the Five College Consortium, students have access to more than 8 million volumes.[30] Computer support is provided.[31] The MEWS (Mediated Educational Work Space) supports collaborative multimedia learning with group project rooms, wall-mounted plasma displays, a digitization center, and a faculty development area.[32]

Faculty

Mount Holyoke's faculty is rich with outstanding teachers and scholars who love introducing students to the excitement of intellectual endeavor. Student research projects, undertaken in collaboration with faculty, have made significant contributions to the sciences and other fields of study. A number of faculty are nationally and internationally recognized for their research and writing achievements, including Joseph Ellis (historian), Susan Barry (neurobiologist), Mark McMenamin (geologist and paleontologist) and Becky Wai-Ling Packard (psychologist). The Hypersea concept in Mark and Dianna McMenamin's book Hypersea: Life on Land [33] has been called by Discover Magazine one of seven ideas that could change the world. [34]

Campus

Home of Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge, 'Sycamores', a former dormitory for the college

The 800-acre (3.2 km2) campus was designed and landscaped between 1896 and 1922 by the landscape architecture firm of Olmsted and Sons. The campus includes a botanic garden, two lakes, several waterfalls, tennis courts, stables and woodland riding trails. it is also home to the Mount Holyoke College Art Museum which is part of the Five College Museums/Historic Deerfield and the Museums10. An independent bookstore, The Odyssey Bookshop, is located directly across from the campus in the college-owned Village Commons.[35] Mount Holyoke has instituted “The Big Turn Off” energy conservation campaign.[36] It also focuses on "green" building with five LEED certified buildings on campus.[37] It has reduced its environmental impact by recycling 40% of waste and composting as well as using produce grown in the student-run organic garden in dining halls.[38]

The home of Benjamin Ruggles Woodbridge, known as "The Sycamores", served as a dormitory for the college from 1915-1970.[39][40] The mansion, built in 1788 by Colonel Woodbridge, is on the National Register of Historic Places.

Mount Holyoke is also close to the cities of Amherst and Northampton as well as to two malls: Hampshire Mall and Holyoke Mall. The Mount Holyoke Range State Park is also close to the campus.

Organization

Named after nearby Mount Holyoke, it is a member of the Pioneer Valley's Five College Consortium, the Consortium of Liberal Arts Colleges, the Annapolis Group, and the Oberlin Group. It was a part of The New College Plan. It is currently a part of The Consortium on Financing Higher Education and The Knowledge Corridor.

WMHC (91.5 FM) is a radio station licensed to serve South Hadley, Massachusetts. The station is owned by Mount Holyoke College and licensed to the Trustees of Mount Holyoke.

Students

Mount Holyoke has a student population of 2,200. Students come from "48 states and nearly 70 countries. One in three students is an international student or African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, or multiracial. Thirty-six percent of incoming first-year students were in the top five percent of their high school classes".[41] Mount Holyoke also attracts a large international population.[42] Although Mount Holyoke only considers female applicants for admission, it will award diplomas to transgendered students who become male or identify themselves as male by the time they complete their studies.[43] To reflect this fact, in 2005 Mount Holyoke's Student Government Association amended its constitution so that the word "she" was replaced with "student."[44] Additionally, male students may enroll in classes through the Five College Consortium.

Student groups

Mount Holyoke offers a number of student groups and organizations. Themes include Art, Academics, Club Sports, Entertainment & the Performing Arts, Politics & Activism, Governing Organizations and Religious organizations.[45]

Traditions

The Kathryn Irene Glascock Awards, grants The Glascock Prize to the winner of this annual event (which has been held at Mount Holyoke since 1924).[46]

The Faculty Show takes place once every four years, around 1 April faculty members create a show which parodies themselves and their students.[47]

The Junior Show (also known as J-Show) refers to a show created by Juniors (and a few professors) who parody life at Mount Holyoke. A common feature is a sketch mocking the president and dean of the college, along with well-known professors.[48]

Mountain Day begins with the sound of ringing bells from Abbey Chapel on a beautiful autumn morning secretly chosen by the President of the College and all classes are canceled for the day and many students hike to the summit of nearby Mount Holyoke.[49]

M&C's, originally called Milk & Crackers, is now referred to as Milk & Cookies.[50] M&Cs are a nightly snack provided by dormitory dining halls, but also refer to a popular student a cappella group, M&Cs (Milk and Cookies)[51]

The following traditions are organized by the Class Boards of each year.

Big/Little Sister is a reference to the pairing of juniors and firsties (or first-years) who are paired up to take part in organized—and unorganized—events together. Coordinated by the Junior Class board

Disorientation or "Dis-O," is a closely guarded secret. This event is organized by the Senior Class Board.

Elfing is a secret tradition, organized annually by the sophomore class.

Founder's Day is held on the Sunday closest to 8 November (the date of the opening of Mount Holyoke in 1837). It was begun by Elizabeth Storrs Mead in 1891. The current version of the tradition includes ice cream being served early in the morning near Mary Lyon's grave. The current President of the College and select faculty are invited to scoop ice cream for the Senior Class who dons their gowns.[52]

Seniors dress in traditional cap and gown as well as accessories in their class color. Convocation marks the beginning of the academic year.

Canoe Sing is an event which takes place prior to commencement in which canoes are decorated with lanterns and paddled by seniors singing Mount Holyoke songs. They are joined by fellow graduating seniors on shore.

Baccalaureate is held in Abbey Chapel; the medieval German ode to Academe, "Gaudeamus Igitur" is sung by berobed Seniors and Faculty during the procession. Following convocation, Faculty line the path to Mary Lyon's grave. Seniors walk through this throng, to the grave (to place a wreath).

The Laurel Parade takes place the day before commencement. Graduating seniors wear white and carry laurel garlands, in a parade to Mary Lyon's grave. They are escorted by approximately 3,000 alumnae, also in white, who thereby welcome them into the Alumnae Association. Once at Mary Lyon's grave, the garland is wound around the cast-iron fence, and the Mimi Farina song "Bread and Roses" is sung by all in attendance. White is a tribute to those who fought for women's suffrage.[53]

Athletics

Mount Holyoke offers 14 varsity sports programs and seven competitive club sports teams. The College is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III and the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (NEWMAC) as well as the NERC (the New England Rowing Conference).[54] Facilities include a lighted synthetic multipurpose turf field surrounded by an eight-lane track with a nine-lane straightaway; Kendall Sports and Dance Complex housing a swimming pool and separate diving well; gymnasium with basketball, volleyball, and badminton courts; weight room; cardiovascular area; 1-acre (4,000 m2) field house with indoor track and tennis courts; squash courts; racquetball courts; and three studios for dance, aerobics, yoga, and other activities; The Orchards, an 18-hole golf course designed by Donald Ross (home to the 2004 U.S. Women's Open); and a 60-stall Equestrian Center with two indoor arenas (100' x 256' and 70' x 130'), an outdoor show ring, permanent fibar dressage arena, outdoor cross-country courses, and a boathouse finished for Spring 2010.[55]

Noted people

The main article provides a list of individuals associated with Mount Holyoke through attending as a student, or serving as a member of the faculty or staff.

In art and media

Mount Holyoke is referenced in works of theater, film, and popular culture. Wendy Wasserstein's 1977 play, Uncommon Women and Others, is based upon Wasserstein's experiences at Mount Holyoke of the early 1970s. The play explores the lives of the fictional characters Carter, Holly, Kate, Leilah, Rita, Muffet, Samantha, and Susie.

Two feature films reference Mount Holyoke of the 1960s. The first is the 1987 film Dirty Dancing which is set at a summer resort in the Catskills in the summer of 1963. The protagonist Frances "Baby" Houseman (named after Mount Holyoke graduate Frances Perkins) plans to attend Mount Holyoke in the fall to study economics of underdeveloped countries and then to later enter the Peace Corps. The second is the 1978 film National Lampoon's Animal House which is set in 1962. It satirizes a common practice up until the mid-1970s, when women attending Seven Sister colleges were connected with or to students at Ivy League schools. In the film, fraternity brothers from Delta house of the fictional Faber College (based on Dartmouth College[56]) take a road trip to the fictional Emily Dickinson College (Mount Holyoke College)--in real life, Mount Holyoke and Dartmouth are unofficial brother-sister schools.

Mount Holyoke was mentioned more recently in the 2002 film National Lampoon's Van Wilder, when the title character gives a half-time pep talk to his school basketball team, offering them a party with Mount Holyoke students should the team win.

The Mount Holyoke amphitheater was also featured in an episode of the Comedy Central sitcom Stella during a graduation ceremony in the episode "Paper Route".

Mount Holyoke also featured in "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can", an episode of The Simpsons: "The Seven Sisters were immortalized in popular culture in a 2003 episode of The Simpsons. Having won local and state spelling bees, Lisa Simpson advances to the national finals. However, the moderator, concerned about the contest’s low television ratings, offers Lisa free tuition ('and a hot plate') at the Seven Sisters college of her choice if she will allow a more popular contestant (who happens to be a boy) to win. Lisa refuses, but has a dream in which students from each of the Seven Sisters appear to her."[57] The Mount Holyoke student in Lisa's dream invites Lisa to "Come party with me!" before passing out drunk.

Additional characters in popular culture include "Emily" from the television series Empty Nest, "Donna," from the television series Judging Amy, "Judy Maxwell," from the film, What's Up, Doc?, "Brooke," from The L Word, Season 4, "Catherine," the serial bride in the film noir release, Black Widow and "Helen Bishop", the divorcee neighbor from Mad Men.

In the episode of Law and Order: Criminal Intent "Consumed", the husband of suspect Beth Landau (Karen Sillas) states in reference to the 3 murders she was accused of, "How could she do that? She went to Holyoke for Gods sake!"

In the first episode of season 4, the television show the L Word referenced Mount Holyoke as the college the daughter of Max/Moira's boss attends.

References to Mount Holyoke also occur in a few works. Mount Holyoke was mentioned in television series, House, in the second episode from Season 4, "The Right Stuff." In David Liss's 2006 novel, The Ethical Assassin, Chitra—the love interest of the protagonist Lem Altick—is saving money so that she may attend Mount Holyoke. Alan Arkin, the father of the bride in the 1979 film The In-Laws, mutters when he sees the squalor-filled office of Peter Falk (the father of the groom), "Four years at Mount Holyoke so she could marry into this." Mount Holyoke is mentioned frequently in Neil Simon's play, Broadway Bound. Recently, Mt. Holyoke was mentioned as one of Julie Taylor's college options on the TV show Friday Night Lights.

In the book trailer for the Gary Shteyngart novel Super Sad True Love Story it's said that Gary insists that he receive three recently graduated debutantes from Mount Holyoke as part of his advance payment.[58]

Notes

  1. ^ As of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2009_NCSE_Public_Tables_Endowment_Market_Values.pdf. Retrieved March 15, 2010. 
  2. ^ Faculty Retrieved on 2009-07-22.
  3. ^ Fast Facts Retrieved on 2009-07-22.
  4. ^ Shefter, David. "Location Ideal For 2004 Women’s Open: Championship Course Was Built For A Woman, Owned By All-Female College". uswomensopen.com. http://www.uswomensopen.com/2004/press/course-ideal.html. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  5. ^ "America's Best Colleges". Forbes.com. 2009-08-05. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2009/94/colleges-09_Americas-Best-Colleges_Rank_2.html. 
  6. ^ "Best Colleges: Liberal Arts Rankings". p. 2. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/liberal-arts-rankings/page+2. 
  7. ^ "College Rankings". princetonreview.com. http://www.princetonreview.com/schools/college/CollegeRankings.aspx?iid=1023734. 
  8. ^ Alma Mater, p. 12
  9. ^ Alma Mater, p. 11
  10. ^ "First Charter of Mount Holyoke". Books.google.com. 2007-01-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=3iW2K-IknGYC&pg=PA436&lpg=PA436&dq=mount+holyoke+chartered+1836&source=web&ots=ihoOe5h7KG&sig=a4hQQ7y6zIV9UD2qeKqNluiBLS0. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  11. ^ Jennifer L. Crispen. "Seven Sisters and a Country Cousin". sbc.edu. http://www.dean.sbc.edu/crispen.html. 
  12. ^ "Daily Life at Mount Holyoke". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/marylyon/life.html. Retrieved 2006-09-01. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Did You Know?". Christian History & Biography 90: 3–4. Spring 2006. 
  14. ^ "Mount Holyoke:A Detailed History". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/cic/about/detailed.shtml. 
  15. ^ AP (1986-12-21). "Stamp for Holyoke Founder". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DE0DB1239F932A15751C1A960948260. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  16. ^ "The Mary Lyon Stamp". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/%7Edalbino/fdcs/mlyon.html. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  17. ^ [1] Degrees & Requirements
  18. ^ [2] Graduate Programs
  19. ^ [3] Dual-Degree Engineering Options
  20. ^ [4] Frances Perkins Program
  21. ^ [5] Postbaccalaureate Studies Program
  22. ^ [6] Five College Consortium
  23. ^ [7] Weissman Center for Leadership and the Liberal Arts
  24. ^ [8] McCulloch Center for Global Initiatives
  25. ^ [9] Miller Worley Center for the Environment
  26. ^ [10] Science Center
  27. ^ [11] Speaking, Arguing, and Writing Program
  28. ^ [12] Community-Based Learning Program
  29. ^ [13] Study Abroad
  30. ^ [14] Library
  31. ^ [15] Computers & Technology
  32. ^ [16] Introducing: The MEWS
  33. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S.; McMenamin, D. L. Schulte (1994). Hypersea: Life on Land. New York: Columbia University Press. 
  34. ^ [17] "Hypersea Invasion" by C. Zimmer.
  35. ^ "In the Valley of the Literate". Nytimes.com. 2007-11-16. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/16/travel/escapes/16North.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  36. ^ "Mount Holyoke College :: News :: MHC's New Energy Conservation Campaign". Mtholyoke.edu. 2006-11-13. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/news/stories/4821124. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  37. ^ "Env Responsible Building :: Environmental Stewardship :: Mount Holyoke College". Mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/es/8442.shtml. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  38. ^ "Amherst College - Green Report Card 2009". Greenreportcard.org. 2007-06-30. http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2009/schools/amherst-college. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  39. ^ "Historic House to be Moved October 19". Mtholyoke.edu. 2004-10-15. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/csj/101504/house.shtml. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  40. ^ "Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections". Mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/lits/library/arch/imag/post/c1300.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  41. ^ "Facts". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/cic/about/facts.shtml. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  42. ^ ‘Sisters’ Colleges See a Bounty in the Middle East
  43. ^ Brune, Adrian (2007-04-08). "When She Graduates as He". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/magazine/articles/2007/04/08/when_she_graduates_as_he/. 
  44. ^ Do transgender students adhere to the mission of a women's college? - News
  45. ^ Mount Holyoke College. "Org Directory :: Student Programs :: Mount Holyoke College". Mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/student-programs/org_lists/index.shtml?Type=x. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  46. ^ "Kudos:Recognition for Dartmouth faculty, staff, and students". dartmouth.edu. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~vox/0506/0515/kudos.html. Retrieved 2006-12-10. 
  47. ^ "Faculty Show 2006". Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/news/7373.shtml. 
  48. ^ "Junior Show 2006". Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/news/6124.shtml. 
  49. ^ "Heading for the Hills on Mountain Day: It's Been a Mount Holyoke Tradition Since 1838". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/csj/961004/mtday.html. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  50. ^ "Traditions: M & Cs (milk and crackers)". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/cic/campuslife/love-it.shtml?num=3. Retrieved 2006-09-16. 
  51. ^ "Traditions: M&Cs A Capella". http://www.mtholyoke.edu/org/milkandcookies/about.html. 
  52. ^ "Traditions: Founder's Day". Mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hatlas/traditions/founders.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  53. ^ "100 Years of Laurel and Other Commencement Customs". mtholyoke.edu. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/csj/051900/Laurel.html. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  54. ^ [18] Athletics
  55. ^ [19] Athletics Facilities
  56. ^ Landis, John (2003-08-29). Interview with Soledad O'Brien. Live from the Headlines. CNN. http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0308/29/se.09.html. 
  57. ^ "Seven Sisters". Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/cic/about/12812.shtml. 
  58. ^ Super Sad True Love Story book trailer

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 42°15′20″N 72°34′28″W / 42.255586°N 72.574503°W / 42.255586; -72.574503


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