- William John Young
Beginnings and Education
William John Young was born on
January 26, 1878in Withington, Manchester, England. He received a B.Sc.in 1898 and a M.Sc.in 1902 at Owen College, Manchester. Young began his research early in his career, and was granted the Levinstein and Dalton research exhibitions for 1899-1900 and 1900-1901 respectivelycite web|url = http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120673b.htm |title = Young, William John (1878 - 1942) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online |accessdate = 2008-06-30] .
Yeast Fermentation Experiment
From 1900-19912 Young held the title of Assistant Biochemist at the
Lister Institute of Preventative Medicinein London. Here, he worked collaboratively with Sir Arthur Hardenon the mechanism of fermenting enzymes in yeastextract. Their research extended the work of Eduard Buchneron cell-free alcoholic fermentation by the observation that salts of orthophosphoric acidstimulate that fermentation. They developed a superior apparatus to collect and measure the gases that evolved during alcoholfermentation. This model employed a volumetric measurement of CO2, while former apparatuses used a gravimetricmeasurement.http://www.jstor.org/view/1479571x/ap030011/03a00010/6?frame=noframe&userIDfirstname.lastname@example.org/01cc99332200501bc2c9f&dpi=3&config=jstor]
Using this new apparatus,
Arthur Hardenand Young inadvertently discovered the sugar diphosphatein the system [Harden and Young, 1913] . That compound, which was coined the Harden-Young ester, was later shown to be fructose-1,6-diphosphate [Nelson and Cox, 2007] . This compound was the first chemical intermediate discovered in fermentation. Its discovery led to the ultimate description of fermentation in terms of molecular intermediates. Harden’s and Young’s general findings can be summarized by the following equations:
# 2C6H12O6 + 2Na2HPO4 = C6H10O4(PO4Na2)+2H2O + CO2 +2C2H6O;
# C6H10O4(PO4Na2)2 + H2O = C6H12O6 + 2Na2HPO4
In 1910, Young received his
D.Sc.from the University of London.
Research in Australia
In 1913, Young and his family migrated to
Queensland, Australia, where he was appointed Biochemist at the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, Townsville. In 1920, Young became a lecturer at the University of Melbourne. He was promoted to Associate Professorin 1924 and Foundation Professor in 1938 . During these years, his interests were extended to applied biochemistry of food preservation. He was a forerunner in refrigerationtechniques, and some of his methods are still being used with bananas..
Australia, Young conducted several experiments related to the biochemistry of blood. In 1915, he performed a set of experiments to compare the effects of salvarsanand neosalvarsanto the behavior of atoxylin animal blood[Young 1918] . He found that they were very similar to one another, and all led to a form of arsenicassociated with blood proteins. This arsenicwas found to be localized to the plasma and the red blood cellsin the blood.
In response to previous studies of the anti-tryptic action of
blood serum, Young conducted a series of experiments in 1918 in which he investigated the possible mechanism of this anti-tryptic effect of the blood sera of various animals. His research led him to the tentative conclusion that trypsinwas not a protein(Young 1915, 1918). In later research this conclusion was refuted. He did, however, provide valuable improvements to the techniques utilized in related research.
In 1920, Young embarked on an investigation of the
pigment melaninfound in the skinand hairof animals and humans (Young 1914, 1921) . He found that it could be extracted by treatment with dilute alkali. This research provided him insight into the structure of melaninand it’s role in hairand skin. [cite web|url = http://buffy.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cgi-bin/mua-search?interest=William%20J.%20Young;list_name=title;interestb=;list_nameb=title;dropa=;items_page=10;button=Search;search=yes;tdetails=1835#liststart |title = The University of Melbourne - Archives - UMA Image Catalogue - Search |accessdate = 2008-06-30]
* [http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/bsparcs/biogs/P000925b.htm Bright Sparcs Biographical entry]
* [http://buffy.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cgi-bin/mua-search?interest=William%20J.%20Young;list_name=title;interestb=;list_nameb=title;dropa=;items_page=10;button=Search;search=yes;tdetails=1835#liststart The University of Melbourne - Archives - UMA Image Catalogue]
* Nelson DL, Cox MM (2007) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4th ed., W. H. Freeman, New York.
* Harden A, Thompson J, Young WJ (1911) “Apparatus for Collecting and Measuring the Gases evolved during Fermentation. Biochem J.; 5(5): 230-235.
* Harden A, Young WJ (1913) “The Enzymatic Formation of Polysaccharides by Yeast Preparations.” Biochem J. Dec; 7(6): 630-636.
* Young, WJ (1914), “A Note on the Black Pigment in the Skin of an Australian Black”. Biochem J. Oct; 8(5): 460-462.
* Young WJ (1921) “The Extraction of Melanin from Skin with Dilute Alkali”. Biochem J. 1921; 15(1): 118-122.
* Young WJ (1918) “Studies in the Antitryptic Action of Blood Serum.” Biochem J; 12(4): 499-515.
* Young WJ (1915) “The Fixation of Salvarsan and Neosalvarsan by the Blood after Intravenous Injection.” Biochem J. Dec; 9(4): 479-484.
* Young WJ (1915) “Observations upon the body temperature of Europeans living in the tropics.”J Physiol. May 12; 49(4): 222-232.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
William T. Young — Born February 15, 1918 Lexington, Kentucky, United States Died January 12, 2004 Gulf Stream, Florida, United States Cause of death Heart Attack Education … Wikipedia
William Hugh Young — (* 1. Januar 1838 in Booneville, Missouri; † 28. November 1901 in San Antonio, Texas) war ein konföderierter General im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg. Leben Youngs Familie zog in seiner Jugend nach Red River County, Texas und später ins… … Deutsch Wikipedia
William Singleton Young — (April 10, 1790 September 20, 1827) was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, brother of Bryan Rust Young and uncle of John Young Brown.Young was born near Bardstown, Kentucky.Although he initially studied medicine with a Dr. Bemiss, of Bloomfield … Wikipedia
William Weston Young — (All information varified against Elis Jenkins extensive research, and against records housed at Friends Central Library, Friends House, Euston Rd. London, UK.) Biography William Weston Young, born 20 April 1776, Lewin s Mead, Bristol, England,… … Wikipedia
William Henry Young — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Young. William Henry Young (Londres, 20 octobre 1863 Lausanne, 7 juillet 1942) est un mathématicien anglais issu de l université de Cambridge et ayant travaillé à l université de Liverpool et à celle de Lausanne … Wikipédia en Français
John Young (Canadian politician) — John Young (11 March 1811 12 April 1878) was a member of the Parliament of Canada.Young was born in Ayr, Scotland. His family had no particular social position or money. His father William was a cooper by trade. He was able to qualify for a very… … Wikipedia
John Young Brown — (* 28. Juni 1835 in Claysville, Hardin County, Kentucky; † 11. Januar 1904 in Henderson, Kentucky) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Gouverneur des … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Young, premier baron Lisgar — John Young (1er baron Lisgar) Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Young (homonymie). Sir John Young, 1e baron … Wikipédia en Français
John young (1er baron lisgar) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Young (homonymie). Sir John Young, 1e baron … Wikipédia en Français
John Young (naval officer) — John Young (ca. 1740 1781) was a captain in the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War, commander of the Saratoga which was lost at sea.He began his seafaring career at an early age in the colonial merchant marine and, at the… … Wikipedia