Novorossiysk


Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk (English)
Новороссийск (Russian)
-  City[citation needed]  -
Novoross-title.PNG
Clockwise from the top: The Novosibirsk TV Tower, Lenin Square, The City Harbour, The Shore Promenade, Turkish War Monument
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Novorossiysk is located in Krasnodar Krai
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Novorossiysk
Coordinates: 44°43′N 37°46′E / 44.717°N 37.767°E / 44.717; 37.767Coordinates: 44°43′N 37°46′E / 44.717°N 37.767°E / 44.717; 37.767
Coat of Arms of Novorossiysk (Krasnodar kray) (2006).png
Flag of Novorossiysk.gif
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day September 12[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai
Municipal status
Urban okrug Novorossiysk Urban Okrug[citation needed]
Mayor[citation needed] Vladimir Sinyagovsky[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 853 km2 (329 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
241,788 inhabitants[1]
Rank in 2010 76th
Population (2002 Census) 232,079 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 2002 78th
Density 283 /km2 (730 /sq mi)[3]
Time zone MSD (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded 1836[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 353900—353925[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 8617[citation needed]
Official website

Novorossiysk (Russian: Новоросси́йск; Adyghe: Цӏэмэз, Ts'emez) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: 241,788 (2010 Census preliminary results);[1] 232,079 (2002 Census);[2] 185,938 (1989 Census).[5]

Contents

History

A two-ruble coin dedicated to Novorossiysk as a Hero City

In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. The Genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. Archaeological investigation of the area is in its infancy, but some interesting items have already been uncovered.[1]

Since 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. After the coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Russo-Turkish War, the admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded an eastern base for the Black Sea Fleet on the shore in 1838. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi.

"A Map of The Caucasian Isthmus". Entworfen und gezeichnet von J. Grassl, 1856.

During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly. It was granted city status in 1866 and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. In December 1905, the city was the seat of the short-lived Novorossiysk Republic. From August 26, 1918 until March 27, 1920, Novorossiysk was the principal center of Denikin's White Army. Denikin's South Russian Government was moved to Crimea and many Whites escaped from Novorossiysk to Constantinople.

In 1942, the town was occupied by the Wehrmacht, but a small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town, known as Malaya Zemlya, for 225 days, until it was liberated by the Red Army on September 16, 1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors allowed the Soviets to retain possession of the city's bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973.

In 1960, the town was commemorated in Dmitri Shostakovich's work Novorossiysk Chimes, the Flame of Eternal Glory (Opus 111b).

In 2003, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree setting up a naval base for the Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk. Russia has allocated 12.3 billion rubles (about $480 million) for the construction of the new base between 2007 and 2012. The construction of other facilities and infrastructure at the base, including units for coastal troops, aviation and logistics, will continue beyond 2012.[citation needed]

The Russian lease on port facilities in Sevastopol, Ukraine's main port on the Black Sea, used by the Russian Navy, expires in 2017.[6] Ukraine was reported to be planning to not renew the lease; however, in April 2010 the Russian and Ukrainian Presidents signed agreements to renew the lease by twenty-five years, with an option of further extension by five years, after the new term expires.

Economy

The city sprawls along the shore of the non-freezing Tsemess Bay, which has been recognized since antiquity as one of the superior bays of the Black Sea.

The Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port–with the market capitalization of $1,110,000,000 and shares listed at Russian Trading System and London Stock Exchange–serves Russian sea trade with regions of Asia, Middle East, Africa, Mediterranean, and South America. It is the busiest oil port in the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium.

Novorossiysk is also an industrial city, dependent on steel, food processing, and the production of metal goods and other manufactures. Extensive limestone quarries supply important cement factories in and around the city. The town is home to the Maritime State Academy and Novorossiysk Polytechnic Institute.

Transport

Novorossiysk is connected by rail and highways to the main industrial and population centres of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia. The public transportation within the city boundaries consists of city buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutkas.

The closest airport, Anapa Airport, is located in nearby Anapa and offers flights to several major cities in Russia.

A panoramic view of the port.

Sports

The city association football team, FC Chernomorets Novorossiysk, plays in the Russian first Division.

Environs

Novorossiysk is not a resort town, but Anapa to the north and Gelendzhik to the south are. There are several urban settlements under the jurisdiction of Novorossiysk. The most famous is Abrau-Dyurso, which consists of a townlet on the shore of Lake Abrau and a village on the coast of the Black Sea, connected by a winding mountain road.

The area of Novorossiysk is one of Russia's main wine-growing regions. The wineries of Abrau-Dyurso, established by Tsar Alexander III in 1870, produce table and sparkling wines for domestic consumption.

Buildings and structures

The port of Novorossiysk
A panoramic view of the Tsemess Bay

Notable residents

Twin towns/sister cities

Novorossiysk is twinned with: Novorossiysk has ten sister cities

References

A general view of the city
  1. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  2. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  3. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  5. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  6. ^ Michael J. Strauss (2009-01-09). "And when the lease on Sevastopol expires?". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/01/09/opinion/edstrauss.php. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 

External links


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