Prefoldin


Prefoldin

[
http://www.pdb.org/pdb/explore.do?structureId=1FXK more details...] )]

Introduction

Prefoldin is a family of proteins used in protein folding complexes. It is classified as a heterohexameric molecular chaperone in both archaea and eukarya, including humans. A prefoldin molecule works as a transfer protein in conjunction with a molecule of chaperonin to form a chaperone complex and correctly fold other nascent proteins. One of prefoldin's main uses in eukarya is the formation of molecules of actin for use in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.

Purpose and Uses

Prefoldin is one family of chaperone proteins found in the domains of eukarya and archaea. Prefoldin acts in combination with other molecules as a chaperone protein and promotes protein folding in cells where there are many other competing pathways for protein folding [“Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997.] . Chaperone proteins perform non-covalent assembly of other polypeptide-containing structures "in vivo". They are implicated in the folding of most other proteins. In archaea, prefoldins are believed to function in combination with group II chaperonins [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaperonin#Group_II] Clark, D. S., Whitehead, T.A., "et al". (2007). A filamentous molecular chaperone of the prefoldin family from the deep-sea hyperthermophile "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". "Protein Science", 16:626–634.] in "de novo" protein folding, similar to other chaperone complexes. In eukarya however, prefoldins have acquired a more specific function; they are used to establish correct tubular assembly for many tubular proteins, such as actin Cowan, N. J., Vainberg, I.E., Lewis, S.A., "et al". (1998). Prefoldin, a Chaperone that Delivers Unfolded Proteins to Cytosolic Chaperonin. "Cell", Vol. 93:863–873.] . Actin accounts for 5-10% of all protein found in eukaryotic cells, which therefore means that prefoldin is quite prevalent in the cells. Actin is made of two strings of beads wound round each other and is one of the three main parts of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells [Fruton, Joseph S.: “Protein, Enzymes, Genes; The interplay of chemistry and Biology.” Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999.] . The prefoldin bonds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin protein in the cytosol. This complex of prefoldin and chaperonin then forms molecules of actin in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. The prefoldin acts as a transporter molecule that transports bound unfolded target proteins to the chaperonin (C-CPN) molecule Cowan, N. J., Vainberg, I.E., Lewis, S.A., "et al". (1998). Prefoldin, a Chaperone that Delivers Unfolded Proteins to Cytosolic Chaperonin. "Cell", Vol. 93:863–873.] . For example, the prefoldin that is used in the formation of actin transfers β tubulin or α tubulin to a cytosolic chaperonin. The prefoldin, however, does not form a ternary complex with either tubulin and chaperonin. Once the tubulins are in contact with the chaperonin, the prefoldin automatically lets go and leaves the active site. This is due for prefoldin’s high affinity for the cytosolic chaperonin molecule, as once the prefoldin is in contact with the chaperonin protein, it loses its affinity for the unfolded target protein. Prefoldin is triggered only to bind to nonnative target proteins in the cytosol so that it will only bind to unfolded proteins. Unlike many other molecular chaperones, prefoldin does not use chemical energy, in the form of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to promote protein folding in all cells [Pockley, A.: “Molecular Chaperones and Cell Signaling.” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.] .

Discovery

Prefoldin was found by the laboratory of Nicholas J. Cowan from the Department of Biochemistry at the New York University Medical Center. It was discovered using chromatography. Unfolded labeled β-actin from bovine testes was put into solution. This solution contained an excess of cytosolic chaperonin (C-CPN), a eukaryotic chaperone protein necessary for actin folding. After gel filtration of the actin, the actin complex, consisting of actin and its bonded proteins, began to form and the molecular weight of the complex was observed. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the protein complex, the complex formed a single band that was excised and ran on an SDS gel. It resolved into five bands, therefore proving that a heterooligomeric protein is used to bind to unfolded actin Cowan, N. J., Vainberg, I.E., Lewis, S.A., "et al". (1998). Prefoldin, a Chaperone that Delivers Unfolded Proteins to Cytosolic Chaperonin. "Cell", Vol. 93:863–873.] . The discovery paper was published on May 29, 1998 in the journal "Cell". The laboratory of Ulrich Hartl at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany, has identified an archaeal homolog of prefoldin that also functions as a molecular chaperone Leroux M.R., "et al". (1999). MtGimC, a novel archaeal chaperone related to the eukaryotic chaperonin cofactor GimC/prefoldin. "EMBO J.", Vol. 18:6730–6743.] . Eukaryotic prefoldin likely evolved from archaea, as it is not present (or has been lost) from bacteria.

tructure

Prefoldin is a hetero hexameric protein consisting of two α subunits and four β subunits. The structure of the archaeal homologue was first solved by Siegert "et al". Siegert, R., Leroux, M. R., Scheufler, C., Hartl, F. U., and Moarefi, I. (2000). Structure of the molecular chaperone prefoldin: unique interaction of multiple coiled coil tentacles with unfolded proteins. "Cell", "vol. 103": 621–632.] . Another archaeal prefoldin structure was then published by Clark "et al". Clark, D. S., Whitehead, T.A., "et al". (2007). A filamentous molecular chaperone of the prefoldin family from the deep-sea hyperthermophile "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". "Protein Science", 16:626–634.] . The beta subunits contain 120 amino acid residues each, while the α subunits contain 140 amino acid residues each Clark, D. S., Whitehead, T.A., "et al". (2007). A filamentous molecular chaperone of the prefoldin family from the deep-sea hyperthermophile "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". "Protein Science", 16:626–634.] . Each subunit was found to have a width of 8.4 nm in the archaea "Methanococcus thermoautrophicum" Clark, D. S., Whitehead, T.A., "et al". (2007). A filamentous molecular chaperone of the prefoldin family from the deep-sea hyperthermophile "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". "Protein Science", 16:626–634.] . The height was calculated at 1.8-2.6 nm Clark, D. S., Whitehead, T.A., "et al". (2007). A filamentous molecular chaperone of the prefoldin family from the deep-sea hyperthermophile "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". "Protein Science", 16:626–634.] . The subunits are arranged by hydrophobic interactions with two β barrels at the center and coiled-coil α helices protruding down from them as if it were a jellyfish.

References

See also

* Chaperone
* Actin
* Chaperonin
* Protein Folding


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  • Prefoldin subunit 6 — Prefoldin subunit 6, also known as PFDN6, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PFDN6 prefoldin subunit 6| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=10471| accessdate = ] PBB Summary section… …   Wikipedia

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  • PFDN4 — Prefoldin subunit 4, also known as PFDN4, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PFDN4 prefoldin subunit 4| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=5203| accessdate = ] PBB Summary section… …   Wikipedia

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