- Cinder cone
A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent. The rock fragments, often called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of metres tall. Cinder cones are made of pyroclastic material.
Many cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. Lava flows are usually erupted by cinder cones, either through a breach on one side of the crater or from a vent located on a flank. If the crater is fully breached, the remaining walls form an amphitheatre or horseshoe shape around the vent. Lava rarely issues from the top (except as a fountain) because the loose, uncemented cinders are too weak to support the pressure exerted by molten rock as it rises toward the surface through the central vent.
Cinder cones are commonly found on the flanks of shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes, and calderas. For example, geologists have identified nearly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, a shield volcano located on the island of Hawaii. These cones are also referred to as 'scoria cones' and 'cinder and spatter cones.'
Perhaps the most famous cinder cone, Paricutin, grew out of a corn field in Mexico in 1943 from a new vent. Eruptions continued for 9 years, built the cone to a height of 424 metres, and produced lava flows that covered 25 km².
The Earth's most historically active cinder cone is Cerro Negro in Nicaragua. It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Since it was born in 1850, it has erupted more than 20 times, most recently in 1992 and 1995.
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Cinder Cone — Ne doit pas être confondu avec Cône volcanique. Cinder Cone Photo aérienne en fausses couleurs … Wikipédia en Français
cinder cone — ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY GLOSSARY A volcanic cone built entirely of loose fragmented material (pyroclastics). GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS A small, generally conical shaped volcano formed by accumulation of ejected cinders and other volcanic… … Glossary of volcanic terms
cinder cone — Geol. a small, conical volcano built of ash and cinders. [1840 50] * * * or ash cone Deposit around a volcanic vent, formed by rock fragments or cinders that accumulate and gradually build a conical hill with a bowl shaped crater at the top.… … Universalium
cinder cone — noun a cone formed round a volcanic vent by fragments of lava from eruptions … English new terms dictionary
cinder cone — noun Date: 1849 a conical hill formed by the accumulation of volcanic debris around a vent … New Collegiate Dictionary
cinder cone — noun A conical deposit of rock fragments around a volcano … Wiktionary
cinder cone — A conical hill formed by the accumulation of cinders and other pyroclastics, normally of basaltic or andesitic composition. Slopes generally exceed 20 percent. GG … Glossary of landform and geologic terms
cinder cone — noun : a conical hill formed by the accumulation of volcanic debris around a vent … Useful english dictionary
Cinder Cone (British Columbia) — Cinder Cone Elevation 1,910 m (6,266 ft) … Wikipedia
Cinder Cone and the Fantastic Lava Beds — Cinder Cone Ne doit pas être confondu avec Cône volcanique. Cinder Cone Photo aérienne en fausses couleurs … Wikipédia en Français