- Monument of Liberty, Istanbul
Monument of Liberty, Istanbul
Hürriyet Anıtı (Abide-i Hürriyet)
Location Şişli, Istanbul, Turkey Designer Muzaffer Bey Type memorial and cemetery Material marble Beginning date 1909 Completion date July 23, 1911 Dedicated to soldiers killed during an uprising against the constitution Coordinates Coordinates:
The Monument of Liberty (Turkish: Hürriyet Anıtı or as mostly known as Ottoman Turkish: Abide-i Hürriyet), located in the neighborhood of Çağlayan in Şişli district of Istanbul, Turkey, is a memorial in honor of soldiers killed during the Radical Islamic attacks against the Ottoman Empire's House of Parliament.
The reform action, which took place in the Ottoman History after 1839 was called Tanzimat Fermanı and was strongly opposed by the Islamic reactionaries. They wanted to re-affirm the position of the Sultan Abdulhamid II as absolute monarch. This event happened in following the 31 March Incident and occurred on April 13, 1909 (March 31, 1325 AH in Rumi calendar). Revealed on July 23, 1911, the incident is the first radical islamic action that takes place in the world history. The place holds also the burials of four notable Ottoman high ranked officials, which were brought here in a later time. The monument, seen today as a symbol of modernism, democracy and laicism in Turkey, serves as the focal point of official ceremonies and public gatherings in Istanbul. Modern historians determine the incident as the victory of modernism and democracy against the radical islamic action in the Islamic country.
The monument is situated on the highest hill (130 m (430 ft) above the sea level) in Şişli, Istanbul, called "Hürriyet-i Ebediye Tepesi" (literally Eternal Liberty Hill) and lies today within a triangular area bordered by three major highways between Şişli and Çağlayan.
It was designed by the renowned Ottoman architect Muzaffer Bey, who won the related architectural contest. The monument, constructed between 1909 and 1911 in the form of a cannon firing in the sky, is erected on an equilateral triangular base. On each side of the marble base, the names of the soldiers resting below are carved. On the monument, the tughra of Sultan Mehmed V Reşat is put on. It is situated in the center of a park with pathways like a pentagon star surrounded by a circle symbolizing the star and crescent in the Ottoman flag.
At the monument, the 74 soldiers killed in action of the 31 March Incident were initially buried with a state ceremony on July 23, 1911.
Remains of four high ranked officials of the Ottoman Empire were buried here later on as well:
- Midhat Pasha, a leading member of the Committee of Union and Progress died in exile in Taif, Arabia
- Mahmud Şevket Pasha, commander of the Hareket Ordusu (The Army of Action), which put down the rebellion, and Grand vizier assassinated in 1913
- Mehmed Talat Pasha, former Minister of War and Grand vizier assassinated in 1921, whose remains were brought in 1943 from Berlin, Germany
- Enver Pasha, high ranking military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution, killed in action in Russian Turkestan, whose remains were brought 1996 from Ab-i Derya, today Tajikistan
The place serves as the meeting point for democracy and civil rights demonstrations in Istanbul. Labour Day demonstrations organized by trade unions were celebrated around this place many years long following the Taksim Square massacre in 1977.
Logo of Şişli district
The view of the monument is contained in the logo of Şişli Municipality used by the district mayor.
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