Croix de guerre 1914-1918 (France)


Croix de guerre 1914-1918 (France)

Infobox Military Award
name=Croix de guerre 1914-1918


caption=French Croix de Guerre of World War I
awarded_by=
type= Medal
eligibility=
for= Military duty during World War I, mentioned in Despatches give the importance of the vet role
status= Closed
description=
clasps=
established= 2 April 1915
first_award=
last_award=
total=
posthumous=
recipients=
individual=
higher=Ordre National du Mérite
same=
lower= Croix de guerre 1939-1945


caption2=Ribbon bar & streamer of the French Croix de guerre 1914-1918
The Croix de guerre 1914-1918 (French for "Cross of War") is a French military decoration.

Creation

Soon after the outbreak of World War I, French military officials felt that a new military award had to be created. At that time, the "Citation du jour" ("Daily Service Citation") already existed to acknowledge soldiers, but it was just a sheet of paper.

At the end 1914, General Boëlle, Commandant in Chief of the French 4th Army Corps, tried to convince the French administration to create the formal military award. Maurice Barrès, the noted writer and deputy of Paris, gave Boëlle support in his efforts.

On December 23 1914, the French deputy Georges Bonnefous proposed a legislative bill to create the "Croix de la Valeur Militaire" ("Cross of the Military Valor") signed by 66 other deputies. Émile Driant, a deputy who served in the war zone during much of this time, became its natural spokesman when he returned to the legislature. On 18 January 1915, Émile Driant submitted this bill but the name of the military award was renamed the Croix de guerre ("Cross of War"). After parliamentary discussions, the bill was adopted on 2 April 1915

World War I began in 1914 and ended in 1918, so the final name became "Croix de guerre 1914-1918".

Every "Croix de guerre" carries at least one mention awarded for gallantry to any member of the French military or its allies. Degrees indicate the importance of the former soldier's role during the World War I. The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a silver palm. The number of mentions on a "Croix de guerre" is not limited.

Military insignia

*Medal designed by the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé. It is 37 mm in diameter showing four arms and two crossed swords. The center of the front side shows the symbolic profile of the French Republic: a young woman wearing a Phrygian cap. The words "« République française »" (French Republic) encircle the portrait. The back of the medal shows the dates of the conflict: first, it was 1914-1915 then 1914-1916, 1914-1917 and finally 1914-1918.

*Ribbon : green with seven narrow vertical red stripes

Citations

*Mentioned in Despatches: The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a silver palm.
** Bronze star: for those who were mentioned at the regiment or brigade level.
** Silver star: for those who were mentioned at the division level.
** Silver gilt star: for those who were mentioned at the corps level.
** Bronze palm: for those who were mentioned at the army level.
** Silver palm: represents five bronze mentions.

The mentions are awarded for gallantry to any member of the French military or its allies and are, depending on the degree, roughly the equivalent to the U.S. Bronze Star and Silver Star or the UK Military Cross and Military Medal.

ee also

*Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
*Croix de guerre
*Croix de guerre 1939-1945
*Croix de guerre des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures


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