- Viennese German
Viennese German is the city dialect spoken in
Vienna, the capital of Austriaand is counted among the Austro-Bavariandialects. Even in Lower Austria, the state surrounding the city, many of its expressions are not used, while farther to the west they are often not even understood.
Viennese is rather different from the Austrian form of
Standard Germanas well as other dialects spoken in Austria ("see also Austrian Germanand Austro-Bavarian").
At the beginning of the 20th century one could differentiate between four Viennese Dialects (named after the districts in which they were spoken): "Favoritnerisch", "Meidlingerisch", "Ottakringerisch", and "Floridsdorferisch". Today these labels are no longer applicable and one speaks of "one" Viennese dialect whose usage differentiates itself as one moves further away from the city.
phonologyonly found in Viennese German:
Monophthongization: Compared to Standard German and to other Bavarian dialects, diphthongsare often monophthongized.
** Standard German "heiß" – Bavarian "hoaß" – Viennese "haaß" [IPA|haːs]
** Standard German "weiß" – Viennese "wääß" [IPA|væːs]
** Standard German "Haus" – Viennese "Håås" [IPA|hɒːs]
*It is typical to lengthen vowels somewhat, often at the end of a sentence. For example: "Heeaasd, i bin do ned bleeed, wooos waaasn ii, wea des woooa" (Standard German "Hörst du, ich bin doch nicht blöd, was weiß denn ich, wer das war").
*The "Meidlinger L": In the
working classdialect, the pronunciation of the letter "l" reflects the Czech pronunciation. This is known as "Meidlinger L".
*Inserting vowels into consonant clusters (
Epenthesis): Likewise depending on the social class, every now and then a speaker may insert a vowel (near-Schwa) between two following consonants. This usually results in an additional syllable, which "intensifies" the word and usually has a negative feeling to it.
** Standard German "Verschwinde!" – Viennese "Vaschwind!" – intensified "Vaschawind!"
** Standard German "Verbrecher!" – Viennese "Vabrecha!" – intensified "Vabarecha!"
** Standard German "abgebrannt" – Viennese "oobrennt" – intensified "oobarennt"
** Standard German "Geradeaus!" – Viennese "Groodaus!" – intensified "Garoodaus!"
Other characteristics are found in Viennese German as well as in
*Consonant tenseness: Voiceless
fortisconsonants become lenis-Consonants [p, t, k] become voiceless Lenis-consonants [IPA|b̥, IPA|d̥, IPA|g̊] . The [k] , however, usually remains fortis when it follows a vowel.
*Vocalizing of the [l] within a word after a vowel,
e.g. "also" → "oeso" [IPA|ˈɔe̯so] , "Soldat" → "Soedot" [IPA|sɔe̯ˈdɔːt] , "fehlen" → "föhn" [IPA|fœːn] , "Kälte" → "Köödn" [IPA|ˈkøːd̥n̩]
*Vocalizing of the [l] at the end of a word, after a vowel,
e.g. "schnell" → "schnöö" [IPA|ʃnœː] , "viel" → "vüü" [IPA|fʏː]
e.g. "Glück" [IPA|ˈglʏk] → "Glick" [IPA|ˈglɪk] , "schön" [IPA|ˈʃøːn] → "schee" [IPA|ˈʃẽː]
*Rounding unrounded vowels that come before palatal consonants [IPA|l] ,
e.g. "schneller" → "schnöller" [IPA|ˈʃnœlɐ] , "vielleicht" → "vülleicht" [IPA|fʏˈlæːçt] , "wild" → "wüüd" [IPA|vyːd̥]
In the realm of grammar, one does not find many differences with other Austro-Bavarian dialects. The following are typical:
* avoidance of the
* use of the preposition "ohne" (without) with the
dativecase instead of the accusative
*The replacement of "ihn" or "ihm" with "eam", for instance: "Hast du ihn gesehen?" ("Have you seen him?") would be in Viennese "Host eam gsehn?"
*The avoidance of the personal pronouns in the second person singular, for instance "Bist deppert?" ("Are you a fool?") instead of High German "Bist DU blöd?"
It is in its vocabulary where Viennese is most distinct.
Influences on the Vocabulary
The Viennese vocabulary displays particular characteristics. Viennese retains many
Middle High Germanand sometimes even Old High Germanroots. Furthermore, it integrated many expressions from other languages, particularly from other parts of the former Habsburg Monarchy, as Vienna served as a melting potfor its constituent populations in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
The transcription of Viennese has not been standardized. Thus, the rendering of pronunciation here is incomplete:
Old High German:
**"Zähnd" (Standard German "Zähne", English "teeth", from zand)
**"Hemad" ("Hemd", = English "shirt", from "hemidi")
Middle High German:
**"Greißler" (="small grocer", from "griuzel" -
diminutiveof "Gruz" ="grain")
**"Baaz" (="slimy mass", from "batzen"="being sticky")
**"si ohfrettn" (="to struggle", from "vretten")
*from Hebrew and Yiddish:
**"Masl" (="luck", from masol)
**"Hawara" (="friend, companion", from "chaver")
**"Gannef" (="crook", from "ganav")
**"Beisl" (="bar, pub", from "bajser")
**"Motschga" (="unappetizing mush", from "mocka"="residue in a pipe" or "macka"="Sauce, Soup")
**"Pfrnak" (="(big) nose")
**"Lepschi" ("Auf Lepschi gehen" = "to go out" or "to amuse oneself")
**"Maschekseitn" (="the other side", from "a másik")
**"Gattihosn" (="long underpants", from "gatya" = "trousers")
**"Gspusi" (="girlfriend", from "sposa")
Gstanzl" (="Stanza of a humorous song", from stanza)
**"Gusta" (="appetite for something", from "gusto")
**"Trottoa" (="sidewalk", from "trottoir")
**"Lawua" (="washbowl", from "lavoir")
**"Loschi" (from "logis")
In Viennese one increasingly finds the following pragmatic peculiarities:
*Frequently occurring ironic speech which is marked neither through
intonationnor through gestures. This is – especially for foreigners – a source of misunderstandings.
Hyperboleis the rule. For example: The sentence "I bin an hoibn Dog ummadumgrennt, woa in hundert Gschäfter und hob nix gfundn" literally means "I have run around for half a day, was in a hundred stores and found nothing to buy." However, this really means that the person was in about three stores for at best one hour and only bought a little bit.
*“Opposite exaggeration,” the recognizable diminutive suffixes such as "-l" or "-erl" (as in "Kaffeetscherl" or "Plauscherl").
In more recent times Viennese has become closer to Standard German; this has developed into a kind of Standard German spoken with a typical Viennese
accent(for example, the original Viennese "Wos host’n fir a Notn gschriebn?" becomes modern "Was hast’n für eine Note gschriebn?"). The typical Viennese monophthongization, through which the dialect differentiates itself from the neighboring dialects, remains, but mostly in the form of a developing “Pseudo-Standard German” that many foreigners, particularly from other states, feel is ugly Fact|date=December 2007.For example: "Wäääßt, wos mir heut in der Schule für än gråååsliches Fläääsch kriegt ham?" (Standard German "Weißt du, was für ein widerliches Fleisch wir heute in der Schule vorgesetzt bekamen?") The monopthongized Diphthongs, like "ei" ~ "äää" or "au" ~ "ååå", are particularly stressed and lengthened.
The reason for the convergence of the typical Viennese Dialects, is the attitude, strengthened by the media, that "Urwienerisch" is to be considered something of the
Proletariat. With the rising standard of living the original Viennese can further converge, as it is considered a sign of low-class origins, while the unique Viennese words (such as "Zwutschgerl") however generally stay in use.
* [http://www.karanitsch.net/w6/vfa.htm Viennese for Americans - A Phrase Book] ("A humorous guide to speaking Viennese; no translations into High German")
* [http://wien.orf.at/magazin/studio/radiowien/popup?skin=liveradio2 Radio Wien] ("Live broadcasting from Vienna mostly in Viennese dialect")
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