Quadrangle (architecture)


Quadrangle (architecture)

In architecture, a quadrangle is a space or courtyard, usually square or rectangular in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly occupied by parts of a large building. The word is probably most closely associated with college or university campus architecture, but quadrangles may be found in other buildings such as palaces. Most quadrangles are open air, while a few have been glazed over often to provide additional space for social meeting areas or coffee shops for students.

The word "quadrangle" was originally synonymous with "quadrilateral", but this usage is now relatively uncommon. ["Quadrangle, "n." Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. OED Online Oxford University Press. 29 June 2006. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50193968]

Some modern quadrangles bear a passing resemblance to the cloister gardens of medieval monasteries, which were usually square or rectangular gardens or lawns enclosed by open arcades or cloisters. However it is clear from the oldest examples (such as Mob Quad) which are plain and unadorned with arcades, that the medieval colleges in Oxford and Cambridge were creating practical accommodation for college members. Grander quadrangles that look like cloisters came later, once the idea of a college was well established and benefactors or founders wished to create more monumental buildings. [See the references at Mob Quad]

In America, Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia centered the housing and academic buildings in a Palladian form around three sides the Lawn, a huge grassy expanse. Later, some American college and university planners imitated the Jeffersonian plan, the Oxbridge idea, Beaux-Arts forms, and other models. The University of Chicago's Gothic campus is also notable for its innovative use of quadrangles.Fact|date=February 2007

Notable quadrangles

*Reading School, Berkshire.
*Blue Boar Quadrangle
*David R. Francis Quadrangle
*Memorial Quadrangle
*Mob Quad in Merton College, Oxford is one of the oldest quads in existence.
*Peckwater Quadrangle
*Quadrangle (Harvard)
*The Dartmouth Green
*The Quadrangle
*Radcliffe Quadrangle, University College, Oxford
*Schenley Quadrangle, University of Pittsburgh
*Bascom Hill, University of Wisconsin-Madison
*Stanford University
*The Citadel (military college)
*Tom Quad
*The Quadrangle, University of Pennsylvania
*Upper Quad, Lincoln Hall, University of Nottingham
*Beit Quad, Imperial College London
*The Quadrangle, St. Joseph's College, London
*The Terrazzo, United States Air Force Academy
*The Medical Quandrangle, Queen's University

Gallery

Educational establishments

Palaces

See also

*Siheyuan

Notes


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