- Expulsion of Poles by Germany
partitions of Polandhad ended the existence of a sovereign Polish state in the 18th century. With the rise of nationalismin the late 19th century, Polesfaced increasing discrimination. The first deportation of 30,000 Poles from the German Empiretook place in 1885. While ideas of expelling Poles can be found in German political discourse of the 19th century, these ideas matured into full-scale plans during the First World War, calling for the removal of Polish population from territories that were to be annexed by Germany from the Russian Empire. Imannuel Geiss, Der polnische Grenzstreifen 1914-1918. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Kriegszielpolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg, Hamburg/Lübeck 1960] The Nazisadopted these plans when creating their Lebensraumconcept Large scale expulsions of Poles occurred during World War II, when Nazi Germanystarted the Generalplan Ostcampaign to ethnically cleanse the annexed Polish areas. Although the Nazis were not able to fully implement Generalplan Ost due to the war's turn, up to 2 million Poles were affected by wartime expulsions with additional millions displaced or killed.
Origins of the idea
Since the creation of the
German Empirein 1871, Poles constituted one of its largest minorities as a result of earlier expansions of Prussia, the very state that initiated the foundation of the German Empire. Prussia had acquired territories with a Polish population by taking part in the Partitions of Polandand the Silesian Warswith Austriain the 18th century.
The rise of German nationalism was followed by the idea of
pan-Germanism, demanding the unification of all Germans in one state, including the German diaspora. Some pan-Germanists believed that Germans were ethnically superior to other peoples — including Slavs, whom they viewed as inferior to the German "race" and culture. The Naziconcept of " Lebensraum" in turn demanded "living space" for German people, claiming overpopulation of Germany and alleged negative traits of heavy urbanisation in contrast to agricultural settlement. The desired territories were to be taken in the East. Both pan-Germanism and "Lebensraum" theory viewed Poles as an obstacle to German hegemony and prosperity as well as future expansion of the German state.
German authorities, fearing that the possible rebirth of Poland would threaten German control over the territories annexed in her PartitionsFact|date=September 2008, sought to limit the number of Poles by forced Germanisation and by new wave of settlement by German colonists. Beginning with the
Kulturkampf, laws were enacted to restrict Polish culture, religion, language and property. Bismarck initiated the Prussian deportationsof 1885-1890, which affected some 30,000 Poles and Jewsliving in Germany whithout holding German citizenship. This is described by E.J. Feuchtwanger as the precursor to modern ethnic cleansingE.J. Feuchtwanger, "Bismarck", Routledge 2002] . In 1887 Bernhard von Bülow, the future Chancellor of the German Empire, advocated expelling Poles by force from territories which were Polish-inhabited and slated to become part of Germany.Herbert Arthur Strauss, "Hostages of Modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism 1870-1933-39 Germany - Great Britain-France",Walter de Gruyter 1993]
Already in 1908 Germany legalised eviction of Poles from their properties under pressure from pan-German nationalist groups who hoped this law would be used to reduce the number of Poles in the East by force.
First World War
During the First World War Germany planned to annex about 30,000 km² from
Congress Polandfor German colonisation. Most of the Polish population of those territories (about 2,000,000 people) was to be expelled into a greatly reduced Polish puppet state. The remaining population was to be used as agricultural labour for German colonists.
With the occupation of Poland following the German invasion of the country, Nazi policies were enacted upon its Polish population on an unprecedented scale. According to Nazi ideology Poles, as
Untermensch, were seen as fit only for slaveryand for further elimination in order to make room for the Germans. Adolf Hitlerhad plans for extensive colonisation of territories in the east of the Third Reich. Poland, itself, would – according to well documented German plans – have been cleared of Polish people altogether, as 20 million or so would have been expelled eventually. Up to 3 or 4 million Polish citizens (all peasants) believed be descendants of German colonists and migrants and therefore considered "racially valuable" would be Germanised and dispersed among the German population. [http://www.dac.neu.edu/holocaust/Hitlers_Plans.htm Hitler’s Plans] .] Nazi leadership hoped that through expulsions to Siberia, famine, mass executions, and slave labour of any survivors Polish nation would be eventually completely destroyed.Wojciech Roszkowski, Historia Polski 1914–1997, Warsaw 1998]
econd World War
World War IIexpulsions took place within two specific territories: one area annexed to Reich in 1939 and 1941, and another, the General Gouvernment, precursor to further expansion of German administrative settlement area. Eventually, as Adolf Hitlerexplained in March 1941, the General Gouvernment would be cleared of Poles, the region would be turned into a "purely German area" within 15–20 years and in place of 15 million Poles, 4–5 million Germans would live there, and the area would become "as German as the Rhineland. Volker R. Berghahn"Germans and Poles 1871–1945" in "Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences",Rodopi 1999]
Expulsions from Polish territories annexed by Nazi Germany
Generalplan Ost(GPO) was a Nazi plan to ethnically cleanse the territories occupied by Germany in Eastern Europe during World War II.According to research of professor Łuczak, Germans expelled the following numbers of Poles from territories annexed to the Reich in the period of 1939-1944:
Combined with "wild expulsions", in four years 923,000 Poles were ethnically cleansed from territories Germany annexed into the Reich"Polacy wypędzeni",
IPNBulletin, nr5(40) May 2004] .
Expulsions from General Government
On the territories of the German protoctorate called General Government there were two main areas of expulsions committed by the German state. The protectorate itself was seen as temporary measure, and served as a
concentration campfor Poles to perform hard labour furthering German industry and war effort. Eventually it was to be cleared of Poles also.
116,000 Poles were expelled from the
Zamośćregion as part of Nazi plans for establishment of German colonies in the conquered territories. Zamość itself was to be renamed Himmlerstadt, later changed to Pflugstadt (Plow City), that was to symbolise the German "Plow" that was to "plough" the East. Additionally almost 30,000 children were kidnapped by German authorities from their parents for potential Germanisation. This led to massive resistance (see Zamość Uprising).
In October 1940, 115 thousand Poles were expelled from their homes in central Warsaw to make room for the Jewish Ghetto, constructed there by German authorities.
It is estimated that between 1.6 and 2 million people [http://www.ushmm.org/education/resource/poles/poles.php?menu=/export/home/www/doc_root/education/foreducators/include/menu.txt&bgcolor=CD9544 "Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era"] at US Holocaust Memorial Museum] were expelled from their homes during the German occupation of Poland. Only the German organized expulsions affected directly 1,710,000 Poles. Additionally, 2.5 to 3 million Poles were taken from Poland as slave labourers to Germany to support the Nazi war effort. These numbers do not include people arrested by the Germans and sent to Nazi concentration camps.
In many instances, Poles were given between 15 minutes and 1 hour to collect their personal belongings (usually no more than 15 kilograms per person) before they were thrown out of their homes and transported east ("see: deportations") On top of that about 5 million Poles were sent to
German concentration camps. A total of about 6 million Polish citizens were killed during the war. All these actions resulted in significant changes in Polish demographics at the end of the war.
*Drang nach Osten ("Drive towards the East")
*Lebensraum ("Living space"), one of major political ideas of Adolf Hitler
World War II evacuation and expulsion
Pacification operations in German-occupied Poland
Prussian deportationsof Poles and Jews in 1885-1890
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