DShK


DShK
DShK
12,7-мм станковый пулемёт ДШК образца 1938 года (3-1).jpg
DShK on wheeled mount with shield.
Type Heavy machine gun
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1938 – Present
Used by See Users
Wars World War II
Korean War
Chinese Civil War
Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian-Vietnamese War
Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
Iran-Iraq war
Gulf War
Yugoslav wars
Iraq War
Afghan War
Cambodian–Thai border stand-off
2011 Libyan civil war
Production history
Designer Vasily Degtyaryov, Georgi Shpagin
Designed 1938
Variants DK, DShKM , DSHKS, Type 54 HMG
Specifications
Weight 34 kg (74.96 lb) (gun only)
157 kg (346.13 lb) on wheeled mounting
Length 1,625 mm (64.0 in)
Barrel length 1,070 mm (42.1 in)

Cartridge 12.7x108mm
Action gas-operated reloading
Rate of fire 600 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 850 m/s (2,788 ft/s)
Effective range 2000 m
Maximum range 2500 m
Feed system belt 50 rounds
Sights Iron/Optical

The DShK 1938 (ДШК, for Дегтярёва-Шпагина Крупнокалиберный, Degtyaryova-Shpagina Krupnokaliberny, 'Degtyaryov-Shpagin Large-Calibre') is a Soviet heavy machine gun firing the 12.7x108mm cartridge. The weapon was also used as a heavy infantry machine gun, in which case it was frequently deployed with a two-wheeled mounting and a single-sheet armour-plate shield. It took its name from the weapons designers Vasily Degtyaryov, who designed the original weapon, and Georgi Shpagin, who improved the cartridge feed mechanism. It is sometimes nicknamed Dushka (lit. "Sweetie", "Dear"), from the abbreviation.

Contents

History

The requirement for a heavy machine gun appeared in 1929. The first such gun, the Degtyaryov, Krupnokalibernyi (DK, Degtyaryov, Large calibre), was built in 1930 and this gun was produced in small quantities from 1933 to 1935.

The gun was fed from a drum magazine of only thirty rounds, and had a poor rate of fire. Shpagin developed a belt feed mechanism to fit to the DK giving rise, in 1938, to the adoption of the gun as the DShK 1938. This became the standard Soviet heavy machine gun in World War II.

Like its U.S. equivalent, the M2 Browning, the DShK 1938 was used in several roles. As an anti-aircraft weapon it was mounted on pintle and tripod mounts, and on a triple mount on the GAZ-AA truck. Late in the war, it was mounted on the cupolas of IS-2 tanks and ISU-152 self-propelled guns. As an infantry heavy support weapon it used a two-wheeled trolley, similar to that developed by Sokolov for the 1910 Maxim gun. It was also mounted in vehicle turrets, for example, in the T-40 light amphibious tank.

In 1946, the DShK 1938/46 or DShKM (M for modernised) version was introduced.

In addition to the Soviet Union and Russia, the DShK has been manufactured under license by a number of countries, including the People's Republic of China, Pakistan and Romania. Today, it has largely been phased out in favour of the more modern NSV and Kord designs.

A British Army Westland Lynx helicopter was hit 15 times and forced to make an emergency landing in June 1988 during The Troubles by two Provisional IRA DShK's smuggeled in from Libya near Cashel Lough Upper, south County Armagh.[1] They were also used in 2004, against British troops in Al-Amarah, Iraq.[2]

Users

DShKM on a Romanian TR-85 main battle tank
DShKM anti-aircraft machine gun on a T-55 tank loader's roof hatch
Jamiat-e Islami Mujahideen of Afghanistan in 1987 with a DShK

Non-state users

Gallery

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Harnden, Toby (2000).Bandit Country:The IRA and South Armagh. Coronet Books, pp. 360-361 ISBN 0340717378
  2. ^ a b Mills, Dan (2007). "16". Sniper One. Penguin Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-718-14994-9. "They were Dshkes, a Russian-made beast of a thing that fires half-inch calibre rounds and was designed to bring down helicopters." 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Jones, Richard D.; Ness, Leland S., eds (January 27, 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 9780710628695. 
  4. ^ Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995). ISBN 978-0710612410.
  5. ^ a b c d e Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. London: Salamander Books Ltd.. ISBN 9781840652451. 
  6. ^ a b c http://en.calameo.com/read/000127853fed679f5ecec
  7. ^ uncovering the irish republican army pbs.org
  8. ^ Al-Jazeera coverage of Libyan uprising Youtube.com

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