- Student loans in Canada
Student loans in Canada help post-secondary students pay for their education in
Canada. The federal government funds the Canada Student Loan Program (CSLP) and the provinces may fund their own programs or run in parallel with the CSLP. In addition, Canadian banks offer commercial loans targeted for students in professional programs.
Canadian citizens, permanent residents of Canada living in any province for over a year, and protected persons cite web|url=http://www.canlearn.ca/cgi-bin/gateway/canlearn/template.asp?a=student&l=en&sc=pay/apply/BC/ft/public/determine_eligibility/your_eligibility.shtml|title=Determining Eligibility for Canada Student Loans|accessdate = 2007-06-29] are normally eligible for loans provided by the federal government, through the Canada Student Loans Program (CSLP), in addition to loans provided by their province of residence.
Loans issued to full-time students are interest free while a student is in full-time studies. Students receiving a CSL for the first time on or after August 1, 1995 are eligible for up to 340 weeks (approx 6.5 years) of interest-free assistance. Students in doctoral programs are eligible for an additional 60 weeks, up to 400 weeks (approx 7.5 years). Students with permanent disabilities and students who received their first CSL prior to August 1, 1995 are eligible for up to 520 weeks of assistance (10 years).cite web|url=http://www.canlearn.ca/en/Multimedia/nslsc/pdf/guides/CAN_06-07_EN.pdf|title=How long can I apply for and receive student financial assistance? - Page 9|accessdate = 2007-10-28]
As the length of North American graduate degree programs often exceed this 400 week maximum, students considering graduate study are advised to think carefully before taking out student loans. For example, an honours BA from a Canadian University takes four years, assuming satisfactory progress. MA programs in Canada vary in length from 1-3 years, with two years being the average minimum. A PhD, takes on average, 5 years to complete, although many students take significantly longer than this. Assuming a graduate student completes an honours BA (4 years), an MA (2 years), and a PhD (5 years), one can expect to be in university for at least 11 years. This is significantly longer than the 400 weeks maximum allotted to complete a degree by the National student loan program, and graduate students can easily find themselves in a position where they are required to repay their student loans while enrolled as a full-time student.
Funding is available for part-time students through the CSLP (provincial student loans are not available). Part-time students must make interest payments while in study and begin payments of principal and interest when they cease to be a part-time student. Grants may supplement loans to aid students who face particular barriers to accessing post-secondary education, such as students with permanent disabilities or students from low-income families.
Students must apply for the Canadian and provincial loans through their provincial government. The rules for what determines your province of residence vary, but normally it is defined as where you have most recently lived for at least 12 consecutive months, not including any time you spent as a full-time student at a post-secondary institution. In most cases, the province of residence is the province one lived in before becoming a post-secondary student.
Canada Student Loans (CSL) of up to $210 per week of full-time study or 60% of the student's assessed need (the lesser of these) can be issued per loan year (August 1–July 31). Loans issued through provincial programs will normally provide students with enough funding to cover the balance of their assessed need. Part-time loans of up to $4,000 can be made, but a student cannot be more than $4,000 in debt on part-time loans at any one time. All Canadian students may also be eligible for the
Canada Millennium ScholarshipFoundation Bursary (CMS Grant), and other grants provided by their province of residence.cite web|url=http://www.ousa.ca/uploaded_files/pdf_files/Issue%20Briefings/issuebriefingstudentfinancialaid.pdf
title=Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance Issue Briefing on Student Financial Assistance|accessdate = 2007-08-09]
For example, students in
British Columbiamay be eligible for a maximum of $14,300 combined loan and grant funding per year.
Prior to 1964, the national student loan program was known as the
Dominion-Provincial Student Loan Program. This program was a matching grant partnership system between the federal and provincial governments. It was started in 1939 and ended with the start to the CSLP in 1964.
Some text from the Department of Human Resources and Social Development Canada:
The CSLP was created in 1964. Since its inception, the Program has supplemented the financial resources available to eligible students from other sources to assist in their pursuit of post-secondary education. Between 1964 and 1995 , loans were provided by financial institutions to post-secondary students who were approved to receive financial assistance. The financial institutions also administered the loan repayment process. In return, the Government of Canada guaranteed each Canada Student Loan that was issued, by reimbursing the financial institution the full amount of loans that went into default.
In 1995, several important changes were made to Canada Student Loans. First, the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act was proclaimed, replacing the existing Canada Student Loans Act (which still remains in force to this day) reflecting the changing needs of the parties involved in the loan process, including the conferred responsibility of the collection of defaulted loans to the banks themselves. The Government of Canada developed a formalized "risk-shared" agreement with several financial institutions, whereby the institution would assume responsibility for the possible risk of defaulted loans in return for a fixed payment from the Government which correlated with the amount of loans that were expected to be, or were, in default in each calendar year. During this period, the weekly federal loan amount was increased to a maximum of $165.
On July 31, 2000, the risk-shared arrangement between the Government of Canada and participating financial institutions came to an end. The Government of Canada now directly finances all new loans issued on or after August 1, 2000. The administration of Canada Student Loans has become the responsibility of the National Student Loans Service Centre (NSLSC). There are two divisions of the NSLSC, one to manage loans for students attending public institutions and the other to administer loans for students attending private institutions. Defaulted Canada Student Loans disbursed under this new regime are now collected by the Canada Revenue Agency which, by Order in Council dated August 1, 2005, became responsible for the collection of all debts due under programs administered by Human Resources and Social Development Canada.
Due to the close nature of the Canada Student Loan Program (CSLP) and the provincial student loan programs, the changes in 1995 and 2000 were largely mirrored by the provincial programs. As a result of these changes, students who attended school before and after these transition years may find that they have up to 6 different loans to manage (pre-1995 federal & provincial; 1995-2000 federal & provincial; and post-2000 federal & provincial). The extent to which this is possible depends largely on a student's province of residence.
A review of the Canada Student Loans Program was announced in Budget 2007. Changes resulting from the Review are expected to be announced in Budget 2008. cite web|url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/learning/canada_student_loan/form_en.shtml|title=CSLP Review|accessdate = 2007-10-25]
tudents in professional programs
Most charter banks in Canada have specific programs for students in professional programs (e.g., medicine) that can provide more funds than usual in the form of a line of credit, sometimes with lower interest rates as well. Students may also be eligible for government loans that are interest free while in school on top of this line of credit, as private loans do not count against government loans/grants. [cite web|url=http://www.ousa.ca/uploaded_files/pdf_files/Policy%20Papers%20and%20Statements/SFAPolicy.pdf
title=Building the Third Pillar: Reforming Ontario's Student Financial Aid System|accessdate=2007-08-09]
Loan administration and repayment
The Canada Student Loan (sometimes referred to as the National Student Loan) is administered by National Student Loan Service Centre cite web|url=http://www.canlearn.ca/cgi-bin/gateway/canlearn/id/nslsc.asp|title=The National Student Loan Service Centre|accessdate = 2007-05-21] under contract to Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC). Students have the choice of opting for a fixed interest rate of
prime interest rate+ 5%, or a floating interest rate of prime interest rate+ 2.5%.
Based on the HRSDC student loan calculator cite web|url=http://srv650.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/cslp-pcpe/cl/30/lrc-crp/calculate.do|title=HRDC Student Loan Calculator|accessdate = 2007-05-21] , and assuming a
prime interest rateof 4.5%, a standard 10-year (114 month) repayment period, and a loan of $30,000:
- if the "Floating Interest" option is selected, monthly payments will be $361.02 (principal and interest), resulting in total payments of $41,156.77 ($30,000 principal + $11,156.77 interest) over the life of the repayment.
- if the "Fixed Interest" option is selected, monthly payments will be $400.50 (principal and interest), resulting in payments of $45,657.54 ($30,000 principal + $16,657.54 interest).
CSLP offers a number of programs to assist students who find themselves facing financial difficulty during repayment. Among these programs are:
;Interest Reliefcite web|url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/learning/canada_student_loan/interest_relief.shtml|title=HRSDC - Interest Relief|accessdate = 2007-06-29] :Interest Relief is designed to help students meet repayment obligations if they are temporarily unable to make payments on their government student loans because of unemployment or low income. Interest Relief is granted for periods of six months, up to a maximum of 30 months. Some exceptions, such as Canadian residency, may apply. Students may also be eligible for a further 24 months of Extended Interest Relief. Once approved for Interest Relief, students are not required to make payments on either the monthly interest or the outstanding principal of their loan(s) (the federal and/or provincial government will pay the interest on a student's behalf).
;Debt Reduction in Repaymentcite web|url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/learning/canada_student_loan/debt_reduction.shtml|title=HRSDC - Debt Reduction in Repayment|accessdate = 2007-06-29] :Debt Reduction in Repayment is designed to help students facing long-term financial difficulties manage the repayment of their Student Loan(s). DRR lowers the principal amount of a loan, thereby reducing the monthly loan payment to an affordable level based on family income. A student can receive up to three reductions (totalling up to $26,000) on their Canada Student Loan principal during their lifetime, depending on financial circumstances.
;Revision of Termscite web|url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/hip/cslp/revision.shtml|title=HRSDC - Revision of Terms|accessdate = 2007-06-29] :Revision of Terms is a feature that provides students with the flexibility to manage loan repayment in a way that is responsive to individual situations. It can be used to decrease the monthly payments by increasing the repayment period (from the standard 10 years up to 15 years) should a student find the standard terms difficult to maintain. It can also be used to increase loan payments by reducing the repayment period, allowing more rapid repayment of a loan.
;Permanent Disability Benefitcite web|url=http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/learning/canada_student_loan/permanent_disability.shtml|title=HRSDC - Permanent Disability Benefit|accessdate = 2007-06-29] :Permanent Disability Benefit allows for the reduction of loans for students who are experiencing exceptional financial hardship due to a permanent disability. The eligibility criteria varies based on date of loan negotiation and lender. A recent Access to Information request indicated that over 60% of applicants to this program were denied loan forgiveness.
* [http://www.canlearn.ca CanLearn.ca]
* [http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/gateways/nav/top_nav/program/cslp.shtml Canada Student Loans Program (federal)]
* [http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/hip/cslp/ImportantLinks/03_il_AssistanceOffices.shtml Provincial/Territorial Student Loan Offices]
* [http://www.canadastudentdebt.ca/ Canada Student Debt Website -provides support for people with student loan problems.]
* [http://www.studentloanfairness.ca/ Coalition for Student Loan Fairness - A coalition of groups requesting changes to the Canada Student Loan Program, focussing on repayment issues.]
* [http://www.cfs-fcee.ca/html/english/home/index.php Canadian Federation of Students]
* [http://www.ousa.ca/uploaded_files/pdf_files/Issue%20Briefings/issuebriefingstudentfinancialaid.pdf Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance Issue Briefing]
* [http://www.aved.gov.bc.ca/studentaidbc/ StudentAid BC - Ministry of Advanced Education - Province of British Columbia]
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