- 1910s in fashion
Fashion in the years 1910-1919 is characterized by a rich and exotic opulence in the first half of the decade in contrast with the somber practicality of garments worn during the Great War. Men's trousers were worn cuffed to ankle-length and creased. Skirts rose from floor length to well above the ankle, women began to bob their hair, and the stage was set for the radical new fashions associated with the
Jazz Ageof the 1920s.Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", Harry Abrams, 1966, p. 400-408] Laver, James: "The Concise History of Costume and Fashion", Abrams, 1979, p. 224-230.]
During the early years of the 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid and soft than in the 1900s. When the
Ballets Russesperformed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910, a craze for Orientalismensued. The couturier Paul Poiretwas one of the first designers to translate this vogue into the fashion world. Poiret's clients were at once transformed into haremgirls in flowing pantaloons, turbans, and vivid colors and geishas in exotic kimono. The Art Nouveaumovement began to emerge at this time and its influence was evident in the designs of many couturiers of the time. Simple felt hats, turbans, and clouds of tulle replaced the styles of headgear popular in the 1900s. It is also notable that the first real fashion shows were organized during this period in time, by the first female couturier, Jeanne Paquin, who was also the first Parisian couturier to open foreign branches in London, Buenos Aires, and Madrid.
Two of the most influential fashion designers of the time were Jacques Doucet and
Mariano Fortuny. The French designer Jacques Doucet excelled in superimposing pastel colors and his elaborate gossamery dresses suggested the Impressionistshimmers of reflected light. His distinguished customers never lost a taste for his fluid lines and flimsy, diaphanous materials. While obeying imperatives that left little to the imagination of the couturier, Doucet was nonetheless a designer of immense taste and discrimination, a role many have tried since, but rarely with Doucet's level of success.
Venice-based designer Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo was a curious figure, with very few parallels in any age. For his dress designs he conceived a special pleating process and new dyeing techniques. He patented his process in Paris on 4 November 1909. He gave the name Delphos to his long clinging sheath dresses that undulated with color. The name Delphos came from the bronze statue of the Delphic Charioteer. Each garment was made of a single piece of the finest silk, its unique color acquired by repeated immersions in dyes whose shades were suggestive of moonlight or of the watery reflections of the Venetian lagoon. Breton straw, Mexican cochineal, and indigo from the Far East were among the ingredients that Fortuny used. Among his many devotees were Eleanora Duse, Isadora Duncan, Cleo de Merode, the Marchesa Casati, Emilienne d'Alencon, and Liane de Pougy.
Tunics and hobble skirts
The extravagances of the Parisian couturiers came in a variety of shapes, but the most popular silhouette throughout the decade was the tunic over a long underskirt. Early in the period, waistlines were high (just below the bust), echoing the Empire or Diréctoire styles of the early 19th century. Full, hip length "lampshade" tunics were worn over narrow, draped skirts. By 1914, skirts were widest at the hips and very narrow at the ankle. These
hobble skirts made long strides impossible.
Waistlines were loose and softly defined. They gradually dropped to near the natural waist by mid-decade, where they were to remain through the war years. Tunics became longer and underskirts fuller and shorter. By 1916 women were wearing a calf-length dress over an ankle-length underskirt.
uits and coats
The "Tailleur" or tailored suit of matching jacket and skirt was worn in the city and for travel. Jackets followed the lines of tunics, with raised, lightly defined waists. Fashionable women of means wore striking hats and
furstole or scarves with their "tailleurs", and carried huge matching muffs.
Most coats were cocoon or kimono shaped, wide through the shoulders and narrower at the hem. Fur coats were popular.
The war years
Changes in dress during
World War Iwere dictated more by necessity than fashion. As more and more women were forced to work, they demanded clothes that were better suited to their new activities; these derived from the shirtwaists and tailored suits. Social events were postponed in favor of more pressing engagements and the need to mourn the increasing numbers of dead, visits to the wounded, and the general gravity of the time meant that darker colors and simpler cuts became the norm. A new monochrome look emerged that was unfamiliar to young women in comfortable circumstances. Women dropped the cumbersome underskirts from their tunic-and-skirt ensembles, simplifying dress and shortening skirts in one step. By 1915, the "Gazette due Bon Ton" was showing full skirts with hemlines above the ankle. These were called the "war crinoline" by the fashion press, who promoted the style as "patriotic" and "practical".Steele, Valerie: "Paris Fashion: A Cultural History", Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 237-238]
Furthermore people were dressing less extravagantly due to funds being put toward the war effort. According to Elieen Collard, Coco Chanel took notice of this and created the new innovation of costume jewelry. She replaced expensive necklaces with glass or crystal beads. "Without grading them to size, she mixed pearls with other beads to fashion original jewelry to be worn with her designs" that were inspired by women joining the workforce. [Collard, Eileen. Decade of Change Circa 1909-1919. Burlington, Ontario, 1981. 9.]
Shoes had high, slightly curved heels. Shorter skirts put an emphasis on stockings, and gaiterswere worn with streetwear in winter. "Tango shoes" inspired by the dance craze had criss-crossing straps at the ankles that peeked out from draped and wrapped evening skirts. *Black, J. Anderson, and Madge Garland, "A History of Fashion", New York, Morrow, 1975, p. 308-314] During the war years, working women wore sensible laced shoes with round toes and lower wedge heels.
Hairstyles and hats
hats with wide brims and broad hats with face-shadowing brims were the height of fashion in the early years of the decade, gradually shrinking to smaller hats with flat brims. Bobbed or short hair was introduced to Parisfashion in 1909 and spread to avant gardecircles in Englandduring the war [See Bob cut] . Dancer, silent film actressand fashion trendsetter Irene Castle helped spread the fashion for short hairstyles in America. [Burbank, Emily, "Woman as Decoration", New York, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1917. gutenberg|name=Woman as Decoration|no=18901]
tyle gallery 1910-14
# of 1910
# by Jeanne Paquin from "La Gazette du Bon Ton" 1912
# illustrated in "Journal des Dames et des Modes", 1912
# for winter 1913-14 combines the stylish tunic and draped hobble skirt
# remained the focus of daytime fashion to mid decade, 1914
# or traveling costume of 1914 illustrates the tailored style that would replace opulence in the war years
# muffs and stoles were important fashion accessories in this period.
tyle gallery 1915-19
# from c. 1915-16 still feature raised waists, but skirts are fuller and hats are smaller than in the early years of the decade
# from "McCall's" c. 1916 shows natural waistlines and full, shorter skirts
# worn by Mrs. Conde Nast, published 1917
# wears a summer costume of 1916 or 17. The tiered skirt foreshadows the shorter skirts that would arise in the early 1920s.
# of 1917 shows the deep V-neckline that was popular after 1913, worn over a camisole.
# summer day dresses show the barrel shape and lowered waists that would characterize the styles of the early 1920s. "Vogue", late June, 1919.
Treaty of Versailles, 1919, wear morning dressand lounge suits.] In general, styles were unchanged from the previous decade. Hair was generally worn short. Wide moustaches were often curled.
Coats, waistcoats, and trousers
The sack coat or lounge coat continued to replace the
frock coatfor most informal and semi-formal occasions. Three-piece suits consisting of a sack coat with matching waistcoat(U.S. "vest") and trouserswere worn, as were matching coat and waistcoat with contrasting trousers, or matching coat and trousers with contrasting waistcoat. Trousers were ankle length with "turn-ups" or "cuffs", and were creased front and back using a trouser press. The gap between the shorter trousers and the shoes was filled with short gaitersor spats.
Waistcoats fastened lower on the chest, and were collarless. The
blazer, a navy blue or brightly-colored or striped flannelcoat cut like a sack coat with patch pockets and brass buttons, was worn for sports, sailing, and other casual activities.
Norfolk jacketremained fashionable for shooting and rugged outdoor pursuits. It was made of sturdy tweedor similar fabric and featured paired box pleats over the chest and back, with a fabric belt. Worn with matching breechesor (U.S. knickerbockers), it became the "Norfolk suit", suitable for bicycling or golf with knee-length stockings and low shoes, or for hunting with sturdy boots or shoes with leather gaiters.
morning coatwas still worn for formal day occasions in Europe and major cities elsewhere, with striped trousers.
The most formal
evening dressremained a dark tail coat and trousers with a dark or light waistcoat. Evening wear was worn with a white bow tie and a shirt with a winged collar. The less formal dinner jacketor tuxedo, which featured a shawl collar with silk or satin facings, now generally had a single button. Dinner jackets, worn with a white shirt and a dark tie, were gaining acceptance outside of the home.
topcoats and calf-length overcoats were worn in winter. Fur coats were worn in the coldest climates.
hirts and neckties
Formal dress shirt collars were turned over or pressed into "wings". Collars were overall very tall and stiffened, with rounded corners.The usual
necktiewas a narrow four-in-hand. Ascot ties were worn with formal day dress and white bow ties with evening dress.
top hats remained a requirement for upper class formal wear; soft felt Homburgs or stiff bowler hats were worn with lounge or sack suits. Flat straw boaters were acceptable for a wider range of activities than previously, and Panama hats were worn for travel.
# shows a tall shirt collar worn with a wide tie, 1910
# includes wing-collared shirt, three-piece suit with wide lapels and pressed trousers, Germany, 1912
# wearing a three-piece suit with characteristic collarless vest or waistcoat. His short has a tall, stuff collar. Poland, 1912.
# of 1914 show's man's overcoat worn with a Homburg hat and gaiters or spats. Note ankle-length creased 0r pressed trousers with cuffs.
# shows stiff collared shirt, striped necktie, and two-piece suit popular in mid-decade, c. 1914
#, and pressed trousers. Note the V-shaped arrangemnet of buttons on the waistcoat or vest. Chicago, c. 1915-1920
# shows a tall shirt collar with round corners and a wide necktie, 1918
# in a three-piece suit with pleated, cuffed trousers, Homburg hat, 1919.
# wear colored shirts with soft collars."The Strike", 1910
# wear tall boots, breeches, and cloth caps. The second man from the left is wearing a Norfolk jacket, Long Island, New York, 1910.
#, 1911, in a casual wool cap.
# worn by stewards, waiters, butlers and others "in service" included a black (not white) tie.
Fashion for children in the 1910's evolved in two different directions, day-to-day and formal dress. Boys were dressed in suits with trousers that extended to the knee and girls' apparel began to become less "adult" as skirt lengths were shortened and features became more child-focused (Villa 28). The war affected the trends in general, as well (Villa 36). Military influences in apparel for little boys was typical and the lengths of skirts for girls were cut shorter yet because of material rationing (Villa 37).
* [http://www.firn.edu/schools/alachua/alc/projects/manju/19111920.htm Women's Fashions 1911 - 1920] (illustrations from fashion magazines)
* [http://www.vintagevictorian.com/costume_1910.html Ladies' and Men's Evening Dress for the Ragtime Era 1910-1920] (vintage images)
*Arnold, Janet: "Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction C.1860-1940", Wace 1966, Macmillan 1972. Revised metric edition, Drama Books 1977. ISBN 0-89676-027-8
*Ashelford, Jane: "The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914", Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5
*Black, J. Anderson, and Madge Garland, "A History of Fashion", New York, Morrow, 1975
*Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", Harry Abrams, 1966.
*Laver, James: "The Concise History of Costume and Fashion", Abrams, 1979.
*Nunn, Joan: "Fashion in Costume, 1200-2000," 2nd edition, A & C Black (Publishers) Ltd; Chicago: New Amsterdam Books, 2000. (Excerpts online at [http://www.victorianweb.org The Victorian Web] )
*Osma, Guillermo de: "Mariano Fortuny: His Life and Work". New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1980.
*Steele, Valerie: "Paris Fashion: A Cultural History", Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-1950-4465-7
*Steele, Valerie: "The Corset", Yale University Press, 2001
Villa, Nora. Children in Their Party Dress. Modena: Zanfi Editori, 1989. 28-37.
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