- Episcopal polity
Episcopal polity is a form of church governance which is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a
bishop(Greek: "episcopos"). This episcopalstructure is found most often in the various churches of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, or Anglican lineage. Some churches founded independently of these lineages also employ this form of church governance.
It is usually considered that the bishops of an episcopal polity derive part of their authority from an unbroken, personal
Apostolic Successionfrom the Twelve Apostlesof Jesus. Bishops with such authority are known as the historical episcopate. Churches with this type of government usually believe that the Church requires episcopalian government. [ [http://www.biblelighthouse.com/govt/captains_and_courts biblelighthouse.com] ]
For most of the written history of Christianity, episcopal government was the only form known to Christianity. (Some Baptists claim to descend from a continuous lineage of small churches which existed in parallel with the main stream of Catholic Christianity). This all changed at the Reformation. Many Protestant churches are now organized by either congregational or presbyterian church polities, both descended from the writings of
John Calvin, a Protestant reformer working and writing independently following the break with the Roman Catholic Churchprecipitated by The Ninety-Five Thesesof Martin Luther. However, the majority of Christians are still members of the historic churches of episcopal governance.
There are subtle differences in governmental principles among episcopal churches at the present time. To some extent the separation of episcopal churches can be traced to these differences in
ecclesiology, that is, their theological understanding of church and church governance. The churches of Rome and Constantinople (the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches in modern terms) have an episcopal government, as do the Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, Anglican, some Lutheranand many Methodistchurches.Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, William H. Swatos, Jr. Editor [http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Lutharanism.htm Lutheranism] Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary. Retrieved on September 4, 2006. ]
Churches having episcopal polity are governed by
bishops, who have authority over dioceses, conferences, or synods (in general referred to as a judicatory). Their presidency is both sacramental and political; as well as performing ordinations, confirmations, and consecrations, the bishop supervises the clergywithin the judicatory and is the representative to both secular structures and in the hierarchy of the church.
In some systems, Bishops may be subject to higher ranking bishops (variously called
archbishops, metropolitans, and/or patriarchs, depending upon the tradition; "see also Bishopfor further explanation of the varieties of bishops".) They also meet in councils or synods. These gatherings, subject to presidency by higher ranking bishops, may govern the judicatory which are represented in the council, though the synodor council may also be purely advisory.
Note that the presence of the office of "bishop" within a church is not proof of episcopal polity. For example, in
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsan LDS bishop occupies the office that in an Anglicanchurch would be occupied by a priest.
Also, episcopal polity is not usually a simple chain of command. Instead, some authority may be held, not only by synods and colleges of bishops, but by lay and clerical councils. Further, patterns of authority are subject to a wide variety of historical rights and honors which may cut across simple lines of authority.
Overview of episcopal churches
The definition of the word "Episcopal" has variation among Christian traditions. For some, "Episcopal churches" are churches that use a hierarchy of
bishops that regard themselves as being in an unbroken, personal Apostolic succession.
"Episcopal" is also commonly used to distinguish between the various organizational structures of denominations. For instance, the word "“presbyterian”" (from the Greek "πρεσβύτης", transliterated "presbyteros") is used to describe a church governed by a hierarchy of assemblies of elected elders "(see
Presbyterian polity".) Similarly, "“episcopal”" is used to describe a church governed by bishops (Greek "επίσκοπος", transliterated "episcopos"). Self-governed local churches (congregations), governed neither by elders nor bishops, are usually referred to as "congregational" "(see Congregational polity.)
More specifically, the title "Episcopal" (capitalized) is applied to several churches historically based within
Anglicanism("Episcopalianism") including those still in communion with the Church of England. "See Episcopal Church (disambiguation).
Using these definitions, examples of specific episcopal churches include:
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Assyrian Church of the East
* The Churches of the
Old Catholic Church
Mar Thoma Church
* Numerous smaller Catholic churches
* Certain national churches of the
* Some of the churches listed in the article titled
Episcopal Church (disambiguation)
Charismatic Episcopal Church
Lutheranchurches practice congregational polityor a form of presbyterian polity. Others, including the Church of Sweden, practice episcopal polity; the Church of Sweden also counts its bishops among the historic episcopate as do some American Lutheran churches like the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Churchand the Lutheran Orthodox Church.
Methodistchurches (see The United Methodist Church, among others) retain the form and function of episcopal polity. Since all trace their ordinations to an Anglican priest, John Wesley, it is generally considered that their bishops do not share in apostolic succession, though United Methodists still affirm that their bishops share in the historic episcopate.
The word "episcopal" is derived from the Greek "επίσκοπος", transliterated "epískopos", which literally means "overseer"; the word, however, is used in religious contexts to refer to a
Before the Great Schism
All orthodox Christians were in a single Church with an episcopal government, that is, one Church under local bishops and regional
Patriarchs. Writing between ca. 85 and 110, St. Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch, was the earliest of the Church fathers to define the importance of episcopal government. Assuming Ignatius' view was the Apostolic teaching and practice, the line of succession was unbroken and passed through the four ancient Patriarchal sees (those local churches known to be founded by apostles), Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria. Rome was the leading Patriarchate of the ancient four by virtue of its founding by Saint Peterand his martyrdom there.
Shortly after the Roman Emperor
Constantine Ilegalized Christianity in 321, he also constructed an elaborate second capital of the Roman Empire located at Byzantiumand renamed it Constantinople, in 324. The single Roman Empire was divided between these two autonomous administrative centers, Roman and Constantinopolitan, West and East, Latin speaking and Greek speaking. This remained the status quo through the fourth century.
In the fifth century, the Western Roman Empire declined and was overrun by German and Frankish peoples. Although the city of Rome was in ruins, distant from the seat of secular power, and constantly harassed by invaders, the Roman Patriarchate remained the center of the Western or Latin Church. Claiming the ancient
primacy of Peterand the title of " Apostolic See," it remained the last court of episcopal appeal in serious matters for the whole Church, East and West.
However, the center of the civilized Roman world had shifted definitively to Constantinople, or
New Rome, the capital of the Greek speaking Empire. Along with this shift, the effective administration of the Church in the Eastern Roman Empire also shifted. This practical eminence of Constantinople in the East is evident, first at the First Council of Constantinople381, and then ecumenically at the Council of Chalcedonin 451.
John the Faster, the Bishop of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595) adopted as a formal title for himself the by-then-customary honorific, Ecumenical Patriarch ("pre-eminent father for the civilized world") over the strong objections of Rome: a title based on the political prestige of Constantinople and its economic and cultural centrality in the Empire. In the following years, Rome's appeals to the East were based on the unique authority of the Apostolic Seeand the primacy of Peter, over against the powers of councils as defended by the East (councils, for example, had endorsed that lofty title which Rome contested).
The sometimes subtle differences between Eastern and Western conceptions of authority and its exercise produced a gradually widening rift between the Churches which continued with some occasional relief throughout the following centuries until the final rupture of the
Great Schism(marked by two dates: 16 July, 1054, and the Council of Florencein 1439).
Roman Catholic Church
Bishop (Catholic Church)"The Catholic Church has an episcopate, with the Pope, who is the Bishop of Rome, at the top. The Catholic Church teaches that juridical oversight over the Church is not a power that derives from human ambition, but strictly from the authority of Christ which was given to his twelve apostles. The See of Rome, as the sole unbroken line of apostolic authority, descending from St. Peter (the "prince and head of the apostles"), is a visible sign and instrument of communion among the college of bishops and therefore also of the local churches around the world. In communion with the world-wide college of bishopsthe Pope has all legitimate juridical and teaching authority over the whole Church. This authority given by Christ to Peter and the apostles is transmitted from one generation to the next by the power of the Holy Spirit, through the laying on of hands, from the Apostles to the bishops, and from bishops to priests and deacons, in unbroken succession.
Eastern Orthodox Churches
The conciliar idea of episcopal government continues in the
Eastern Orthodox Church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the sixteen or so autocephalous primates are seen as collectively gathering around Christ, with other archbishops and bishops gathering around them, and so forth, in a model called "conciliar hierarchy". This is based in part on the vision in the book of Revelationof the 24 elders gathered around the throne of Christ, who are believed to represent the 12 patriarchs of Israel and the 12 apostles of Jesus Christ. There is no single patriarch with exclusive authority comparable to the Pope in Rome.
Oriental Orthodox churches
In the fifth century, several of the Oriental Churches separated from Rome and Constantinople. These were the (Nestorian) and Egyptian Coptic Orthodox (Miaphysite). Differences concerning the theological language for describing the person of Christ at the
Council of Chalcedoncaused these Churches to break full communionwith the rest of the ancient Church. These Churches also trace their epicopal lineages to the ancient apostolic succession.
Both the Greek and Coptic Orthodox churches have a bishop in Alexandria, both of whom trace their
apostolic successionback to the Apostle Mark (the Coptic bishop claims the title of Pope). There are official ongoing efforts in recent times to heal this ancient breach. Already, the two recognize each other's baptisms, chrismations, and marriages, making intermarriage much easier.
Anglicanismis the most prominent of the Reformation traditions to lay claim to the historic episcopate through apostolic successionin terms comparable to the various Catholic and Orthodox Communions. Anglicans assert unbroken episcopal succession in and through the Church of Englandback to St. Augustine of Canterbury and to the first century Roman provinceof Britannia. Although it is impossible to pinpoint an exact moment for the arrival of Catholic Christianity in the British Isles, we know from the Venerable Bedeand other early sources that the faith clearly was planted in Great Britainand Irelandindependent of Rome and prior to Augustine (see Celtic Christianity).
The legislation of Henry VIII effectively establishing the independence from Rome of the Church of England, did not alter its constitutional or pastoral structures.
Royal supremacywas exercised through the extant legal structures of the church, whose leaders were bishops. Episcopacy was thus seen as a given of the Reformed "Ecclesia Anglicana", and a foundation in the institution's appeal to ancient and apostolic legitimacy. What did change was that bishops were now seen to be ministers of the Crown for the spiritual government of its subjects. The influence of Richard Hooker was crucial to an evolution in this understanding in which bishops came to be seen in their more traditional role as ones who delegate to the presbyterateinherited powers, act as pastors to presbyters, and holding a particular teaching office with respect to the wider church.
Anglican opinion has differed as to the way in which episcopal government is "de jure divino". On the one hand, the seventeenth century divine,
John Cosin, held that episcopal authority is "jure divino", but that it stemmed from "apostolic practice and the customs of the Church... [not] absolute precept that either Christ or His Apostles gave about it" (a view maintained also by Hooker) [Cosin, "Works", Vol. IV (Oxford, 1855), p. 402] . In contrast, Lancelot Andrewesand others held that episcopal government is derived from Christ via the apostles. Regardless, both parties viewed the episcopacy as bearing the apostolic function of oversight, which both includes, and derives from the power of ordination, and is normative for the governance of the church. The practice of apostolic succession both ensures the legitimacy of the church's mission and establishes the unity, communion, and continuity of the local church with the universal church. This formulation, in turn, laid the groundwork for an independent view of the church as a "sacred society" distinct from civil society, which was so crucial for the development of local churches as non-established entities outside England, and gave direct rise to the Catholic Revivaland disestablishmentarianismwithin England.
Functionally, Anglican episcopal authority is expressed
synodically, although individual provinces may accord their primate with more or less authority to act independently. Called variously "synods," "councils," or "conventions," they meet under episcopal chairmanship. In many jurisdictions, conciliar resolutions that have been passed require episcopal assent and/or consent to take force. Seen in this way, Anglicans often speak of "the bishop-in-synod" as the force and authority of episcopal governance. Such conciliar authority extends to the standard areas of doctrine, discipline, and worship, but in these regards is limited by Anglicanism's tradition of the limits of authority. Those limits are expressed in Article XXI of the Thirty-Nine Articlesof Religion, ratified in 1571 (significantly, just as the Council of Trentwas drawing to a close), which held that "General Councils...may err, and sometimes have erred...wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of holy Scripture." Hence, Anglican jurisdictions have traditionally been conservative in their approach to either innovative doctrinal development or in encompassing actions of the church as doctrinal (see lex orandi, lex credendi).
Anglican synodical government, though varied in expression, is characteristically representative. Provinces of the
Anglican Communion, their ecclesiastical provinces and dioceses are governed by councils consisting not only of bishops, but also representatives of the presbyterateand laity. The spread of increasingly democratic forms of representative governance has its origin in the formation of the first General Conventions of the American Episcopal Church in the 1780s, which established a "House of Bishops" and a "House of Deputies." In many jursidictions, there is also a third, clerical House. Resolutions may be voted on jointly or by each House, in the latter case requiring passage in all Houses to be adopted by the particular council.
There is no international juridical authority in Anglicanism, although the tradition's common experience of episcopacy, symbolised by the historical link with the See of Canterbury, along with a common and complex liturgical tradition, has provided a measure of unity. This has been reinforced by the
Lambeth Conferences of Anglican Communion bishops, which first met in 1867. These conferences, though they propose and pass resolutions, are strictly consultative, and the intent of the resolutions are to provide guideposts for Anglican jurisdictions - not direction. The Conferences also express the function of the episcopate to demonstrate the ecumenical and Catholic nature of the church.
Churches that are members of the
Anglican Communionare episcopal churches in polity, and some are named "Episcopal." However, some churches that self-identify as Anglican do not belong to the Anglican Communion, and not all episcopally-governed churches are Anglican. The Roman Catholic Church, the Old Catholic Churches (in full communion with, but not members of, the Anglican Communion), and the Eastern Orthodox churches are recognized, and also their bishops, by Anglicans.
Episcopal government in other denominations
Some Protestant churches have adopted an episcopal form of government for practical, rather than historical, reasons. These include some Methodist churches and some of their offshoots. Methodists often use the term "connectionalism" or "connectional polity" in addition to "episcopal". Nevertheless, the powers of the Methodist episcopacy can be relatively strong and wide-reaching compared to traditional conceptions of episcopal polity. For example, in the
United Methodist Church, bishops are elected for life, can serve up to two terms in a specific conference (three if special permission is given), are responsible for ordaining and appointing clergy to pastor churches, perform many administrative duties, preside at the annual sessions of the regional Conferences and at the quadrennial meeting of the world-wide General Conference, have authority for teaching and leading the church on matters of social and doctrinal import, and serve to represent the denomination in ecumenical gatherings. United Methodist bishops in the United States serve in their appointed conferences, being moved to a new "Episcopal Area" after 8 (or 12) years, until their mandated retirement at the end of the quadrenium following their sixty-sixth birthday. [http://www.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=21&mid=5860]
Reformed Church of France, the Reformed Church of Hungary, and the Lutheran churches in mainland Europemay sometimes be called "episcopal". In these latter cases, the form of government is not radically different from the presbyterianform, except that their councils of bishops have hierarchical jurisdictionover the local ruling bodies to a greater extent than in most Presbyterianand other Reformed churches. As mentioned, the Lutheran Church in Sweden and Finland are exceptions, claiming apostolic succession in a pattern somewhat like the Anglican churches. Otherwise, forms of polity are not mandated in the Lutheran churches, as it is not regarded as having doctrinal significance. Old WorldLutheranism, for historical reasons, has tended to adopt Erastiantheories of episcopal authority (by which church authority is to a limited extent sanctioned by secular government). In the United States, the Lutheran churches tend to adopt a form of government more comparable to congregationalism.
Although it never uses the term,
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(aka Mormons) is episcopal (rather than presbyterian or congregational) in the sense that it has a strict hierarchy of leadership from the local bishop up to a single prophet/president, believed to be personally authorized and guided by Jesus Christ. Local congregations (branches, wards, and stakes) have "de jure" boundaries by which members are allocated, and membership records are centralized. This system developed gradually from a more presbyterian polity (Joseph Smith's original title in 1830 was "First Elder") for pragmatic and doctrinal reasons, reaching a full episcopacy during the Nauvooperiod (1839-1846).
Components of episcopal polity
College of Bishops
Bishop of Rome
Vicar of Christ
Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church
Provincial episcopal visitor
Conciliarity(the authority of councils)
Primus inter pares
College of Cardinals
Curia (religion)and Roman Curia
Congregation (Roman Curia)
Congregation for Bishops
Convocation of the English Clergy
Roman Catholic Church hierarchy
Structure and polity of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
Useful encyclopedia categories
There are no polity categories for other denominations, so see:
Categories by denomination
* [http://www.vatican.va/ Vatican: The Holy See] Official Website of the Papacy
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02581b.htm Catholic Encyclopedia: Bishop]
* [http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/ The Website of the Archbishop of Canterbury] Official Website of the Church of England
* [http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/episcopacy.htm Episcopacy]
* [http://reformationtoday.tripod.com/chemnitz/id35.html An Argument for Lutheran Episcopacy] from Reformation Today Online
* [http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=5856 United Methodist Council of Bishops] Official Website of the United Methodist Church
* [http://www.revneal.org/Writings/methepisc.htm/ Methodist Episcopacy: In Search of Holy Orders] By Gregory S. Neal
* [http://www.usccb.org/seia/conprim.shtml An Agreed Statement on Conciliarity and Primacy in the Church] by the Orthodox/Roman Catholic Consultation in the United States of America, 1989.
* [http://www.biblelighthouse.com/govt/captains_and_courts Captains and Courts - A Biblical Defense of Episcopal Government] - by Dr. Ray Sutton.
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