Atum (alternatively spelled Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an important
deityin Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the city of Heliopolis. His name is thought to be derived from the word 'tem' which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his kas.
Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the
Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. He is usually depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form which he returns to at the end of the creative cycle and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.
In the Heliopolitan
Ennead cosmogonyestablished in the sixth dynasty, he was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound ( benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnutfrom spitting or from his semenby masturbationin the city of "Annu" (the Egyptian name for Heliopolis) [ [http://www.philae.nu/akhet/NetjeruA.html#Atum Egyptian gods Atum] URL accessed December 30, 2006.] , a belief strongly associated with Atum's nature as an hermaphrodite(hence his name meaning "completeness"). Strictly, the myth states that Atum ejaculated his semen into his mouth, impregnating himself, possibly indicating autofellatio, which has led many to misinterpret (Via euphemismor Bowdlerization) the myth as indicating creation from mucus.
Iusaaset grandmother of deities
Another belief held that Shu and Tefnut were created by Atum having
sexual intercoursewith a goddess, referred to as "Iusaaset" (also spelt Juesaes, Ausaas, Iusas, and Jusas, and in Greek as Saosis), meaning "the great one who comes forth". She was described as his shadow. Consequently, Iusaaset was seen as the mother and grandmother of the gods. The strength, hardiness, medical properties, and edibility, led the acaciatree to be considered the " tree of life", and thus the oldest, which was situated close to, and north of, Heliopolis, was said to be the birthplace of the deities. Thus, as the mother and grandmother, of the deities, Iusaaset was said to own this tree.
Old Kingdomthe Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens. [http://www.philae.nu/akhet/NetjeruA.html#Atum retrieved November 9, 2006] . By the time of the New Kingdom, the Atum mythos, merged in the Egyptian pantheonwith that of Ra, who was also the creator and a solar deity, their two identities were joined into "Atum-Ra". But as Ra was the whole sun, and Atum became to be seen as the sun when it sets (depicted as an old man leaning on his staff), while Kheperawas seen as the sun when it was rising.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Atum-Re — Atum in Hieroglyphen oder … Deutsch Wikipedia
Atum — in Hieroglyphen Altes Reich … Deutsch Wikipedia
Atum — Atum, Itemu. Atum, dios creador El que existe por sí mismo , era un dios solar en la mitología egipcia. Nombre egipcio: Itemu. Nombre griego: Atum. Contenido 1 Iconografía … Wikipedia Español
Atum — Atum, altägypt. Gott, der in verschiedenen Städten, Heliopolis, Pithom (s. d.) u. a., als Ortsheiliger verehrt wurde. Sein heiliges Tier war der Löwe und die Schlange. Auch der in Heliopolis verehrte Stier Mnevis wurde für eine Verkörperung des A … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Atum — Atum: Dios que, según la cosmogonía menfita, surgió del océano primigenio en una flor de loto. Es el creador de los demás dioses. Es miembro de la eneada. Es padre de: Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, Neftis y … Enciclopedia Universal
Atum — Atum, ägyptischer Urgott und Weltschöpfer, der durch Selbstbegattung das erste Götterpaar Schu und Tefnut hervorbrachte; wurde in menschlicher Gestalt v. a. in Heliopolis verehrt, später meist als Erscheinungsform (Abendsonne) des Sonnengottes… … Universal-Lexikon
atum — s. m. [Ictiologia] Peixe escombrídeo que abunda em todos os mares quentes ou temperados. ‣ Etimologia: árabe at tunn … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Atum — Pour l’article homophone, voir Atoum. Atum est un super vilain appartenant à l’univers de Marvel Comics. Il est apparu pour la première fois dans The Mighty Thor annual 10, en 1982. Origines Après que la Terre fut formée, le Démiurge,… … Wikipédia en Français
Atum — /ah teuhm/, n. Egyptian Religion. a primeval god who by himself begot Shu and Tefnut: the original god of the Ennead. * * * ▪ Egyptian god in ancient Egyptian religion, one of the manifestations of the sun and creator god, perhaps originally a… … Universalium
atum — ide·atum; … English syllables