- Knowledge policy
Policies are the paradigms of government and all bureaucracies. Policies provide a context of rules and methods to guide how large organizations meet their responsibilities. Organizational knowledge policies describe the institutional aspects of knowledge creation, management, and use within the context of an organization’s mandate or business model. Social knowledge policies balance between progress in the knowledge economy to promote global competitiveness with social values, such as equity, unity, and the well-being of citizens.
Knowledge policies are becoming an increasingly important element of the Information Society and the knowledge economy. Such policies provide institutional foundations for creating, managing, and using organizational knowledge as well as social foundations for balancing global competitiveness with social order and cultural values. Knowledge policies can be viewed from a number of perspectives: the necessary linkage to technological evolution, relative rates of technological and institutional change, as a control or regulatory process, obstacles posed by cyberspace, and as an organizational policy instrument.
From a technological perspective, Thomas Jefferson (1816) noted that laws and institutions must keep pace with progress of the human mind. Institutions must advance as new discoveries are made, new truths are discovered, and as opinions and circumstances change. Fast-forwarding to the late 20th century, Martin (1985) stated that any society with a high level of automation must frame its laws and safeguards so that computers can police other computers. Tim Berners-Lee (2000) noted that both policy and technology must be designed with an understanding of the implications of each other. Finally, Sparr (2001) points out that rules will emerge in cyberspace because even on the frontier, pioneers need property rights, standards, and rules of fair play to protect them from pirates. Government is the only entity that can develop and enforce such rules.
From a rate of change point of view, McGee and Prusak (1993) note that when an organization changes its culture, information policies are among the last thing to change. From a market perspective, Martin (1996) points out that although cyberspace mechanisms change very rapidly, laws change very slowly, and that some businesses will use this gap for competitive advantage. Similarly, Sparr (2001) observes that governments have the interest and means to govern new areas of technology, but that old laws generally don’t cover emerging technologies and new laws take time to create.
A number of authors have indicated that it will be very difficult to monitor and regulate cyberspace. Negroponte (1997) uses a metaphor of limiting the freedom of bit radiation is like the Romans attempting to stop Christianity, even though early data broadcasters may be eaten by Washington lions. Brown (1997) questions whether it will even be possible for governments to monitor compliance with regulations in the fact of exponentially increasing encrypted traffic within private networks. As cybernetic environments become central to commercial activity, monitoring electronic markets will become increasingly problematic. From a corporate point of view, Flynn (1956) notes that employee use of corporate computer resources poses liability risks and jeopardizes security and that no organization can afford to engage in electronic communications and e-commerce unprepared.
A key attribute of cyberspace is that it is a virtual rather than a real place. Thus, a growing share of social and commercial electronic activity does not have a national physical location (Cozel (1997), raising a key question of whether legislatures can even set national policies or coordinate international policies. Similarly, Berners-Lee (2000) explains that key criterion of Trademark law – separation in location or market – does not work for World-Wide Web domain names because the Internet crosses all geographic boundaries and has no concept of a market area.
From an organizational perspective, Simard (2000) states that “if traditional policies are applied directly [to a digital environment] , the Canadian Forest Service could become marginalized in a dynamic knowledge-based economy.” Consequently, the CFS developed and implemented an Access to Knowledge Policy that "fosters the migration of the CFS towards providing free, open access to its knowledge assets, while recognizing the need for cost recovery and the need to impose restrictions on access in some cases" (Simard, 2005). The policy comprises a framework of objectives, guiding principles, staff responsibilities, and policy directives. The directives include: ownership and use; roles, rights, and responsibilities; levels of access and accessibility; service to clients; and cost of access.
Viable System Model
Berners-Lee, Tim. 2000. Weaving the Web. Harper Collins, New York, NY p40, 124
Brown, David. 1997. Cybertrends, Penguin Books, London UK. p100, 120
Cozel, Diane. 1997. The Weightless World. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. p18
Flynn, Nancy. 2001. The ePolicy Handbook. American Management Association. p15
Jefferson, Thomas. 1816. Letter to Samuel Kercheval (July 12, 1816)
Martin, James. 1985. In: Information Processing Systems for Management (Hussain, 1985). Richard D. Irwin, Homewood, IL. p339
Martin, James. 1996. Cybercorp, The New Business Revolution. American Management Association, New York, NY. p19
Mcgee, James and Lawrence Prusak. 1993. Managing information Strategically. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. p167
Negroponte, Nicholas. 1996. Being Digital. Random House, New York, NY. P55
Simard, Albert. 2000. Managing Knowledge at the Canadian Forest Service. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON. p51 [http://bookstore.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/home_e.php?test=1] [http://www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/knowledge-management-program-in-the-canadian-forest-service] [http://www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/knowledge-management-putting-the-puzzle-together-one-piece-at-a-time]
Simard, Albert. 2005. Canadian Forest Service Access to Knowledge Policy. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON. 30p [http://bookstore.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/home_e.php?test=1] [http://www.slideshare.net/Al.Simard/access-to-knowledge-policy]
Sparr, Debora. 2001. Ruling the Waves. Harcourt, Inc. New York, NY. p14, 370
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Knowledge market — is a mechanism for distributing knowledge resources. There are two views on knowledge and how knowledge markets can function. One view uses a legal construct of intellectual property to make knowledge a typical scarce resource, so the traditional … Wikipedia
Knowledge economy — The knowledge economy is a term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge in the frame of economic constraints, or to a knowledge based economy. In the second meaning, more frequently used … Wikipedia
Knowledge organization — NOTE: This page must be disambiguated. In some places, knowledge organization refers to an actual organization, that is a management company or institution. At other times, it refers to the act of organizing knowledge. The later concept,… … Wikipedia
Knowledge Mobilization — may be defined as putting available knowledge into active service to benefit society. It may be knowledge that has been gathered through systematic study or through experience. Both the research knowledge and experiential wisdom are worth sharing … Wikipedia
Knowledge Politics — is a virtual think tank operating from the United Kingdom, focusing exclusively on promoting political and policy research on the subject of the information society . Aims and origins Knowledge Politics was launched in late 2006 by a group of… … Wikipedia
Knowledge Nation — was the education policy of the Australian Labor Party (ALP), launched just before the 2001 Federal Election at Victoria University s St Albans campus, by then ALP leader Kim Beazley.Barry Jones was the principle planner of the Knowledge Nation… … Wikipedia
Knowledge intensive business services — (commonly known as KIBS) are services and business operations heavily reliant on professional knowledge. They are mainly concerned with providing knowledge intensive support for the business processes of other organizations. As a result, their… … Wikipedia
Knowledge-based processor — Knowledge based processors are used for processing packets in computer networks. Knowledge based processors are essential for the long term success of the IPv6 [http://www.ipv6.org/ network] . The buildout of the IPv6 network is inevitable as it… … Wikipedia
Knowledge Management — (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of what it knows, and how it knows it. It has been an established discipline since 1995 [Stankosky, 2005] with a body of… … Wikipedia
Knowledge management — (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in… … Wikipedia