- Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War
Many Jewish people were active in
Socialistand Communistorganisations in the period between the two World Wars [Karin Hofmeester and Lee Mitzman, "Jewish Workers and the Labour Movement", 2004] . They were highly represented in the International Brigadesand numbered "about fifty per cent among the Americans of the International Brigades [Cecil Eby, "Comrades and Commissars", p 179] . Other estimates put the figure at "ten per cent" ["Thomas" (2001), p. 577n3] .
The leadership of the
International Brigadesconsidered forming an entirely Jewish brigade [Zaagsma, p 17] but the high casualties made this impossible. However, a Jewish company, the Naftali Botwin Companywas formed within the Palafox Battalion.
Origin of Jewish volunteers in the International Brigades
George Nathan- Chief of Staff XV International Brigade
Milton Wolff- commander Lincoln Battalion
Albert "Yank" Levy
Henryk Torunczyk- commander Naftali Botwin Company
Manfred Sternalias General Emilio Kléber.
Saul Wellman- political commissar Lincoln Battalionand Washington Battalion[ [http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=5761 Obituary Metro Times, Detroit] ]
Carlo Rosselli- headed the Matteotti Battalion
Jack Shulman- American activist
Valter Roman- Romanian politician
Abe Osheroff- American activist
Alfred Kantorowicz- Banned German writer (also known as "Helmuth Campe")
Kurt Julius Goldstein- International Brigader, Holocaust survivor, author.
Lou KentonBritish potter
Alfred Sherman- British journalist and adviser to Margaret Thatcher
Books, sources, links and footnotes
* [http://www.jewishtraces.org/search.php 300 German and Austrian brigadists in French internment camp on jewishtraces.org]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/spanjews.pdf AJEX: Jews in the Spanish Civil War]
* [http://www.lib.msu.edu/coll/main/spec_col/radicalism/saul.htm Saul Wellman Archive]
* [http://www.eui.eu/Personal/Researchers/Zaagsma/thesis.pdf Gerben Zaagsma Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War]
* [http://www.marxists.de/middleast/brenner/ch17.htm Lenni Brenner "Zionism in the Age of the Dictators"]
Hugh Thomas"The Spanish Civil War", 2001.
Cecil Eby, "Comrades and Commissars", 2006.
Albert Prago, "Jews in the International Brigades in Spain, 1979.
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