- Science and technology in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union, science and technology served as an important part of national politics, practices, and identity. From the time of Leninuntil the dissolution of the USSRin the early 1990s, both science and technology were intimately linked to the ideology and practical functioning of the Sovietstate, and were pursued along paths both similar and distinct from models in other countries. Many great scientists, who worked in Imperial Russia(like, e.g. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky), continued to work in the USSRand gave birth to Soviet science.
Marked by a highly developed pure science and innovation at the theoretical level, interpretation and application fell short.
Biology, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, and physics, were fields in which Sovietcitizens have excelled. Sciencewas emphasized at all levels of education, and very large numbers of engineersgraduated every year.
Sovietgovernment made the development and advancement of science a national priority and showered top scientists with honours. Although the sciences were less rigorously censored than other fields such as art, there were several examples of suppression of ideas. In the most notorious, the Ukrainian agronomist Trofim Lysenkorefused to accept the chromosometheory of heredity usually accepted by modern genetics. Claiming his theories corresponded to Marxism, he managed to talk Joseph Stalinin 1948 into to banning population geneticsand several other related fields of biological research; this decision was not reverted up to the 1960s.
The core of fundamental science was the
Academy of Sciences, originally set up in 1725 and moved from Leningrad to Moscowin 1934 and then to Chernogolovkain 1943. It consisted of 250 research institutes and 60,500 full-time researchers in 1987, a large percentage in the natural sciencessuch as biology. Also, all of the union's republics except the RSFSRhad their own mini-academies of science. Despite this, the majority of research (90%) was carried out outside the academy system. Most of this research was of an applied nature related to weapons systemsand performed in secret facilities. Sovietscientists won acclaim in several fields. They were at the cutting edge of science in fields such as mathematicsand in several branches of physical science, notably theoretical nuclear physics, chemistry, and astronomy. The physical chemistand physicist Nikolay Semenovwas the first Soviet citizento win a Nobel Prize, in 1956. For a complete list of Soviet Nobel Prizewinners, see below. Soviet technologywas most highly developed in the fields of nuclear physics, where the arms race with the West convinced policy makers to set aside sufficient resources for research. Due to a crash program directed by Igor Kurchatov, the Soviet Unionwas the second nationto develop an atomic bomb, in 1949, four years after the United States. The Soviet Uniondetonated a hydrogen bombin 1953, a mere ten months after the United States. Space explorationwas also highly developed: in October 1957 the Soviet Unionlaunched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, into orbit; in April 1961 a Russian cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, became the first man in space. The Sovietsmaintained a strong space program until economic problems led to cutbacks in the 1980s.
oviet Nobel Prize winners in science
The following Soviet scientists were recipients of a
Pavel Cherenkov, Ilya Frankand Igor Tamm"for the discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"
Lev Landau"for his theories about condensed matter, particularly about liquid helium ( superfluidity)"
Nikolay Basovand Aleksandr Prokhorov "for fundamental work in the area of the quantum electronics, which led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers on the basis of the maser laser principle"
Pyotr Kapitsa"for his fundamental inventions and discoveries in the Cryophysics"
Zhores Alferov(RU) "for the development of semiconductor heterostructures for high-speed and optoelectronics" (working in the time of the USSR)
*2003 Alexei Abrikosov (RU),
Vitaly Ginzburg(RU) "for innovative work in the theory about superconductors" (working in the time of the USSR)
Nikolai SemenovFor outstanding work on the mechanism of chemical transformation includes an exhaustive analysis of the application of the chain theory to varied reactions (1934–1954) and, more significantly, to combustion processes. He proposed a theory of degenerate branching, which led to a better understanding of the phenomena associated with the induction periods of oxidation processes.
cientific Research Institutions (NII)
A large part of research was conducted in "NII"s — "scientific research institutions" (Russian: НИИ, нау́чно-иссле́довательский институ́т). There have been a great number of NIIs, each specialized in a particular field.
Ioffe Physico-Technical Institutefounded 1918
Institute of Anthropology and Ethnographyfounded 1933
Institute for Physical Problemsfounded 1934
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologyfounded 1946
Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronicsfounded 1954
Joint Institute for Nuclear Researchfounded 1956
Loren Graham"What Have We Learned About Science and Technology from the Russian Experience" and "Science and Technology in Russia and the Soviet Union"
loc - [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sutoc.html Soviet Union]
Suppressed research in the Soviet Union
Soviet Antarctic Expedition
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