- Icelandic vocabulary
The vocabulary of the Icelandic language is heavily derived from and built upon
Old Norseand contains relatively few loanwords; where these do exist their spelling is often heavily adapted to that of other Icelandic words.
Iceland was first settled in the
9th centuryby Norwegians who took captive Irish slaves. At this time, the same language was spoken in both Icelandand Norway.cite web |title=How did the Icelandic language start? |url=http://www.visindavefur.hi.is/svar.asp?id=4796 |accessdate=2007-05-06] Vocabulary was largely Norse, and significant changes did not start to occur until the 13th and 14th centuries. Around this time, Norwegian declensionand inflectionbecame considerably simplified, whereas Icelandic’s did not. This difference can be seen today by comparing the two modern languages.
The introduction of
Christianityto Iceland in the 11th centurybrought with it a need to describe new religious concepts. The majority of new words were taken from other Scandinavian languages; "kirkja" (‘ church’) and "biskup" (‘ bishop’), for example. The relationship between the English and Icelandic languages is made evident by such importations. Other Germanic languages, Greek, and Latin also had a lesser influence.
Numerous other languages have had their influence on Icelandic, French for example brought many words related to the
courtand knightship; words in the semantic fieldof tradeand commercehave been borrowed from Low Germanbecause of trade connections. Many words were also brought in from Danish and German during the language reformation as the Biblewas translated into Icelandic.
Nowadays, it is common practice to coin new compound words from Icelandic derivatives.cite web |title=Icelandic: At Once Ancient and Modern |url=http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/enska.pdf |accessdate=2007-05-06]
It is often the case in Icelandic that
words for new concepts or ideas are composites of other words, "veðurfræði" (‘ meteorology’), is derived from "veður" (‘ weather’) and "fræði" (‘ studies’); or simply that old disused words are revived for new concepts. Like other Germanic languages, Icelandic words have a tendency to be compounded. This means that many small component words can be connected together to create a word with a new meaning. Take the example to right, "hlutabréfamarkaður" (‘ stock market’), which is made from the words "hluti" (‘share’), "bréf" (‘document’) and "markaður" (‘market’).
However, there are some notable exceptions to this rule. "Kaffi", for example, is an icelandicised version of the French "café" or Italian "caffè", both meaning ‘
coffee’; that is to say that it has been adapted to the rules of Icelandic orthography. There are numerous other examples, including "banani" (in that case there was a proposed alternative, "bjúgaldin", literally "curved fruit", but that did not gain popularity). In situations like this, it is awkward or impossible to create words for things that simply do not exist in Iceland; therefore some form of a loanwordmust be used.
Linguistic purism in Icelandic
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