Moskal


Moskal

Moskal (Москаль, Moskalik,Moskal’) is a historical term and present day ethnic slur referring to Russians. It is primarily used as a slur in Ukraine, and Belarus.[1][2]

Contents

Ethnic slur

Text in Ukrainian: "Thank you God that I am not a Moskal"

Moskal can be a type of ethnic slur with a mild negative connotation.

M.Fartukh "Moskali destroy Kiev", illustration from an 1934 history textbook (referring to the destruction of Kiev in 1169)
  • a historic reference word for Russian, or literally Muscovite (a person from Moscow or Muscovy) to differentiate them from other Eastern Slavs such as people from the White Rus' (Belarusians), the Red Rus' (Galicians), others; used in several Slavic languages: Belarusian, Polish and Ukrainian, today it is considered largely an archaism and an ethnic slur.[3]
  • a soldier of the Russian Imperial Army (later the Soviet Army) in the Ukrainian language. People who were drafted to the Army were known to be taken into moskali (Ukrainian: у москалі). Because most of the Ukrainians after serving in the Army spoke often in Russian after demobilization, the word obtained its negative connotation and was applying to the person who lost his roots as well.[citation needed]

Common Surname

Moskal is a common Central and Eastern European surname.[4]

  • Edward Moskal (1924–2005), president of the Polish American Congress
  • Robert M. Moskal (born 1937), Ukrainian bishop of Parma, Ohio (United States)
  • See also Kazimierz Moskal (disambiguation)

Related surnames

Other

  • a type of European sprat (Latin: Clupeidae Latulus)[5]
  • a type of flax (Latin: Linum usitatissimum)
  • a north-eastern wind in the Eastern Ukraine.[6]
  • (muscal) a driver of horse-drawn cabs (Romanian culture)

References

  1. ^ Dictionary of the Russian language. D.N.Ushakov, M., 1940
  2. ^ The Merriam-Webster English dictionary
  3. ^ Edyta M. Bojanowska (2007) "Nikolai Gogol: Between Ukrainian And Russian Nationalism" ISBN 0674022912, p. 55: "In the 'low', folksy world of the provincial narrators, a Russian is a moskal ("Muscovite")", a foreigner and an intruder, at best a carpetbagger, at worst a thief in cahoots with the devil."
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Російсько-український академічний словник 1924–33рр. (А. Кримський, С. Єфремов)
  6. ^ (Ukrainian) ПРИМІТКИ ДО ПОЕМИ Л.МОСЕНДЗА "ВОЛИНСЬКИЙ РІК"

External links


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