Ijebu (also known as Jebu or Geebu [cite book |title=Kingdoms of the Yoruba |publisher= Methuen & Co | author= Robert Smith|year= 1969|pages= p.75] ) was a Yoruba kingdom in pre-colonial
Nigeria. It formed around the fifteenth century. According to legend, its ruling dynasty was founded by Obantaof Ile-Ife. Scholars today have also identified the influence of the Benin Empire in the court art and ritual of the Ijebu.
The kingdom was one of the most developed in the region with a complex and highly organized government. The capital was at
Ijebu Odewhere the Awujalehad his palace. Counterbalancing the Awujale was the Osugbo(known as the Ogboni in other parts of Nigeria) , a council of all free born men that acted as the kingdom's courts. The Osugbo was divided into six groups based on rank, the highest being the iwarefa, whose head the oliwawas the second most powerful figure in the nation. Also powerful was the olisawho could be described as the mayor of Ijebu Ode. Like many African societies, Ijebu was also divided into three age ranks and these groups each had their own leaders.
The state rose in power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries mainly due to its important position on the trade routes between
Lagosand Ibadan. The kingdom imposed sharp limits on trade insisting that all trade through the region be conducted by Ijebu merchants. The monopoly brought great wealth to the kingdom, but also annoyed Europeans.
Despite its wealth the kingdom fell into internal conflict in the late nineteenth century. The kingdom never had a strong military and had long been forced to rely on
mercenaries. These foreigners further destabilized the nation.
1892the British attacked Ijebu in response to its barriers on trade. The British were successful and occupied the capital, burning the meeting hall of the Osugbo. The British army employed Maxim guns, according to the soldier-adventurer Frederick Lugard. In defending himself against charges of excessive death rates in Uganda from his own use of the gun, he stated : "On the West Coast, in the 'Jebu' war, undertaken by Government, I have been told 'several thousands' were mowed down by the Maxim." [Lugard, cited by Cedric Pulford : "Eating Uganda: From Christianity to Conquest", 1999, p. 147]
For several years the capital was occupied by British troops as the kingdom was annexed to the colony of
Peter C. Lloyd, "Ijebu" "African Kingships in Perspective"
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Ijebu — (auch bekannt als Jebu oder Geebu) war ein Reich der Yoruba im heutigen Nigeria. Es wurde im 15. Jahrhundert gegründet. Nach der Legende war der Begründer der regierenden Dynastie Obanta von Ile Ife. Moderne Forschung hat den Einfluss des… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Ijebu-Ode — Original name in latin Ijebu Ode Name in other language Ijebu Ode, Ijebu Ode State code NG Continent/City Africa/Lagos longitude 6.81609 latitude 3.91588 altitude 67 Population 209175 Date 2012 01 18 … Cities with a population over 1000 database