Muhammad's wives

Muhammad's wives
Part of a series on Islam
Wives of Muhammad

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

Sawda bint Zamʿa

Aisha bint Abi Bakr

Hafsa bint Umar

Zaynab bint Khuzayma

Hind bint Abi Umayya

Zaynab bint Jahsh

Juwayriya bint al-Harith

Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan

Rayhana bint Zayd

Safiyya bint Huyayy

Maymuna bint al-Harith

Maria al-Qibtiyya

Muhammad's wives were the eleven or thirteen women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muslims refer to them as Mothers of the Believers (Arabic: Ummahāt ul-Muʾminīn). Muslims use the term prominently before or after referring to them as a sign of respect. The term is derived from Quran 33:6:

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their selves, and his wives are (as) their mothers.[1]

Muhammad's life is traditionally delineated as two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, a city in northern Arabia, from the year 570 to 622, and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the Hijra (migration to Medina).



A series of articles on
Prophet of Islam

In Mecca · Hijra · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · Wives · Farewell pilgrimage · Family tree ·

Qur'an · Hadith ·
Early reforms under Islam · Diplomacy · Military · Persecution by Meccans · Migration to Abyssinia ·

Isra and Mi'raj · Relics · Splitting of the moon ·
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi ·

Views by subject
Jewish · Christian · Slavery ·

Farewell sermon · Saqifah · Pen and paper · Family · Companions · History ·

Durood · Na'at · Mawlid · Haḍra · Madih nabawi ·
Ya Muhammad ·

Islamic · Jewish · Bible · Medieval Christian · Historicity · Criticism · Prophetic biography · Depictions · Films · Depictions in film ·

v · d · e

During his life Muhammad married eleven or thirteen females depending upon the differing accounts of who were his wives. Muhammad's first marriage lasted 25 years.

In Arabian culture, marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasized as a tribal honor.[2] Watt states that all of Muhammad's marriages had the political aspect of strengthening friendly relationships and were based on the Arabian custom.[3] Esposito points out that some of Muhammad's marriages were aimed at providing a livelihood for widows.[4] Francis Edwards Peters says that it is hard to make generalizations about Muhammad's marriages: many of them were political, some compassionate, and some perhaps affairs of the heart.[5]

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

At age 25, Muhammad wed his wealthy employer, the 40-year-old merchant Khadijah. This marriage, his first, would be both happy and monogamous; Muhammad would rely on the wealthy Khadijah in many ways, until her death 25 years later.[6][7] They had two sons, Qasim and Abd-Allah (nicknamed al-Ṭāhir and al-Ṭayyib respectively), both died young, and four daughters—Zaynab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. Shia scholars dispute the paternity of Khadijah's daughters, as they view the first three of them as the daughters from previous marriages and only Fatimah as the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.[8] During their marriage, Khadija purchased the slave Zayd ibn Harithah, then adopted the young man as her son at Muhammad's request.[9]

Hijra (Migration) to Medina

Marriage to Sawda bint Zamʿa

The death of Khadijah left Muhammad lonely, and, before he left for Medina, it was suggested by Khawlah bint Hakim that he marry Sawda bint Zamʿa, who had suffered many hardships after she became a Muslim. Prior to that, Sawda was married to a paternal cousin of hers named As-Sakran bin ‘Amr, and had five or six sons from her previous marriage. There are disagreement in Muslim tradition whether Muhammad first married Sawda or Aisha. In one account, he married Sawda in Shawwal, when she was about 55 years old, in the tenth year of Prophethood, after the death of Khadijah. At about the same period, Aisha was betrothed to him.[10] As Sawda got older, and some time after Muhammad's marriage to Umm Salama,[11] some sources claim that Muhammad wished to divorce Sawda.[12] Still other traditions maintain that Muhammad did not intend to divorce her, but only Sawda feared or thought that he would.[13] As a compromise, or because of her old age, Sawda offered to give her turn of Muhammad's conjugal visits to Aisha, stating that she "was old, and cared not for men; her only desire was to rise on the Day of Judgment as one of his wives".[12] While some Muslim historians cite this story as a reason of revelation for Quran 4:128, others like Rashid Rida dispute this whole account as "poorly supported", or mursal.[13]

Marriage to Aisha

Aisha was the daughter of Muhammad's close friend Abu Bakr. She was initially betrothed to Jubayr ibn Mut'im, a Muslim whose father, though pagan, was friendly to the Muslims. When Khawlah bint Hakim suggested that Muhammad marry Aisha after the death of Muhammad's first wife (Khadijah), the previous agreement regarding marriage of Aisha with ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent.[10] It was also a commandement from Allah (God) to marry Aisha as she would be a great teacher and sustainer of Islam. Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad.[10][14][15] Traditional sources state that she stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine when the marriage was consummated in Medina,[15][16][17][18] with the single exception of al-Tabari, who records that she was ten.[14] Some modern Islamic writers have disagreed with these sources.[19][20] Both Aisha and Sawda, his two wives, were given apartments adjoined to the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi mosque.[21]

Widows of the war with Mecca

Marriage to Hafsa and Zaynab bint Khuzayma

During the Muslim war with Mecca, many men were killed leaving behind widows and orphans. Hafsa bint Umar, daughter of Umar (‘Umar bin Al-Khattab), was widowed at battle of Badr when her husband Khunais ibn Hudhaifa was killed in action. Muhammad married her in 3 A.H./625 C.E.[22] Zaynab bint Khuzayma was also widowed at the battle of Badr. She was the wife of 'Ubaydah b. al-Hārith,[23] a faithful Muslim and from the tribe of al-Muttalib, for which Muhammad had special responsibility.[24] When her husband died, Muhammad aiming to provide for her, married her 4 A.H. She was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen (roughly translates as the mother of the poor), because of her kindness and charity.[25]

Close to Aisha's age, the two younger wives Hafsa and Zaynab were welcomed into the household. Sawda, who was much older, extended her motherly benevolence to the younger women. Aisha and Hafsa had a lasting relationship. As for Zaynab, however, she became ill and died eight months after her marriage.[26][27][28]

Marriage to Umm Salama Hind

The death of Zaynab coincided with that of Abu Salamah, a devoted Muslim, as a result of his wounds from the Battle of Uhud.[27] Abu Salamah's widow, Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya also a devoted Muslim, had none but her young children. Her manless plight reportedly saddened the Muslims, and after her iddah some Muslims proposed marriage to her; but she declined. When Muhammad proposed her marriage, she was reluctant for three reasons: she claimed to suffer from jealousy and pointed out the prospect of an unsuccessful marriage, her old age, and her young family that needed support. But Muhammad replied that he would pray to God to free her from jealousy, that he too was of old age, and that her family was like his family[citation needed]. She married Muhammad.[29]


In 626, Raihanah bint Zaid, was among those enslaved after the defeat of the Banu Qurayza tribe. Her relationship with Muhammed is disputed. The sources regarding her status differ as to whether she was a concubine or whether she eventually married him. Most of the sources reveal that she was a slave woman.[30]

Internal dissension

After Muhammad's final battle against his Meccan enemies, he diverted his attention to stopping the Banu Mustaliq's raid on Medina. During this skirmish, Medinan dissidents, begrudging Muhammad's influence, attempted to attack him in the more sensitive areas of his life, including his marriage to Zaynab bint Jahsh,[31] and an incident in which Aisha left her camp to search her lost necklace, and returned with a Companion of Muhammad.[14]

Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh was Muhammad's cousin, being the daughter of one of his father's sisters.[10] In Medina, Muhammad arranged Zaynab's marriage, a widow, to Zayd ibn Harithah. Zaynab disapproved of the marriage and her brothers rejected it, because according to Ibn Sa'd, she was of aristocratic lineage and Zayd was a former slave and the adopted son of Muhammad.[32][33] Muhammad, however, was determined to establish the legitimacy and right to equal treatment of the adopted, Caesar E. Farah states.[34] Watt however states that it is not clear why Zaynab was unwilling to marry Zayd as Zayd was held in a high place in Muhammad's esteem. Watt discusses the following two possibilities: being an ambitious woman, she was already hoping to marry Muhammad; and the other she may have been wanting to marry someone of whom Muhammad disapproved for political reason. In any case, Watt says, it is almost certain that she was working for marriage with Muhammad before the end of 626.[35] According to Maududi, the Qur'anic verse 33:36 was revealed,[36] thus Zaynab acquiesced and married Zayd. Zaynab's marriage was unharmonious, and eventually became unbearable.[32][37] Zaynab told Zayd about this, and Zayd offered to divorce her, but Muhammad told him to keep her.[10] The story laid much stress on Zaynab's perceived beauty and Muhammad's supposedly disturbed set of mind.[38] William Montgomery Watt doubts the accuracy of this portion of the narrative, since it does not occur in the earliest source. He thinks that even if there is a basis of fact underlying the narrative, it is suspect to exaggeration in the course of transmission as the later Muslims liked to maintain that there was no celibacy and monkery in Islam.[33] Nomani considers this story to be a rumor.[39] Rodinson disagrees with Watt arguing that the story is stressed in the traditional texts and that it would not have aroused any adverse comment or criticism.[38]

The marriage seemed incestuous to Muhammad's contemporaries because Muhammad was marrying the former wife of his adopted son, and the adopted sons were counted the same as a biological son.[10] According to Watt, this "conception of incest was bound up with old practices belonging to a lower, communalistic level of familial institutions where a child's paternity was not definitely known; and this lower level was in process being eliminated by Islam."[40] Muhammad's decision to marry Zaynab was an attempt to break the hold of pre-Islamic ideas over men's conduct in society.[citation needed] Initially, however, he was reluctant to marry Zaynab, fearing public opinion. The Qur'an, however, indicated that this marriage was a duty imposed upon him by God. Thus Muhammad, confident that he was strong enough to face public opinion, proceeded to reject these taboos.[41] When Zaynab's waiting period was complete, Muhammad married her.[42] A prominent faction who held influence in the civic atmosphere in Medina, called "Hypocrites" in the Islamic tradition,[43] criticized the marriage as incestuous.[10] They spread rumors in an attempt to divide the Muslim community, as part of a strategy of attacking Muhammad through his wives.[43] However, the marriage was justified by verse 33:37 of the Qur'an,[10] which implied that treating adopted sons as real sons was objectionable, and that there should now be a complete break with the past.[10] According to Ibn Kathir, the verses were a "divine rejection" of the Hypocrites' objections.[43] According to Rodinson, doubters argued the verses were in exact conflict with social taboos and favored Muhammad too much. The delivery of these verses, thus, did not end the dissent.[38]

Necklace incident

Aisha had accompanied Muhammad on his skirmish with the Banu Mustaliq. On the way back, Aisha lost her necklace which she had borrowed from her sister Asma Bint Abu Bakr(a treasured possession), and Muhammad required the army to stop so that it could be found. The necklace was found, but during the same journey, Aisha lost it again. This time, she quietly slipped out in search for it, but by the time she recovered it, the caravan had moved on. She was eventually taken home by Safw'an bin Mu'attal.[44]

Rumors spread that something untoward had occurred although there were no witnesses to this.[14] Disputes arose, and the community was split into factions. Meanwhile, Aisha had been ill, and unaware of the stories. At first Muhammad himself was unsure of what to believe, but eventually trusted Aisha's protestations of innocence.[44] Eventually verses were revealed, establishing her innocence, and condemning the slanders and the libel. Although the episode was uneasy for both Muhammad and Aisha, in the end it reinforced their mutual love and trust.[45]


One of the captives from the skirmish with the Banu Mustaliq was Juwayriya bint al-Harith, who was the daughter of the tribe's chieftain. Upon being enslaved, Juwayriya went to Muhammad requesting that she - as the daughter of the lord of the Mustaliq - be released, however the Prophet refused. Meanwhile her father approached Muhammad with ransom to secure her release, but Muhammed still refused to release her. Muhammad then offered to marry her, and she accepted.[46] When it became known that tribes persons of Mustaliq were kinsmen of the prophet of Islam through marriage, the Muslims began releasing their captives.[47] Thus, Muhammad's marriage resulted in the freedom of nearly one hundred families whom he had recently enslaved.[48]

In the same year, Muhammad signed a peace treaty with his Meccan enemies, the Quraysh, effectively ending the state of war between the two parties. He soon married the daughter of the Quraysh leader, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, aimed at further reconciling his opponents.[49] He sent a proposal for marriage to Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan who was in Abyssinia at the time, when he learned her husband had died. She had previously converted to Islam (in Mecca) against her father's will. After her migration to Abyssinia her husband had converted to Christianity, and although she remained a steadfast Muslim.[50] Muhammad dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to the Negus (king), asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

In 629, after the Battle of Khaybar, Muhammad freed Safiyya bint Huyayy a noblewoman[51] of the defeated Jewish tribe Banu Nadir, from her captor Dihya and proposed marriage. Safiyya accepted. Scholars believe that Muhammad married Safiyya as part of reconciliation with the Jewish tribe and as a gesture of goodwill.[52][53] Safiyyah had been previously married to Kinana ibn al-Rabi, a commander who was executed, and before that to the poet Salaam ibn Mas̲h̲kam, who had divorced her.[51][54] He then convinced Safiyya to convert to Islam and marry him.[55] Upon entering Muhammad's household, Safiyya became friends with Aisha and Hafsa, and also offered gifts to Fatima. But when Muhammad's other wives spoke ill of Safiyya's Jewish descent, Muhammad intervened, pointing out to everyone that Safiyya's "husband is Muhammad, father is Aaron, and uncle is Moses", a reference to revered Islamic prophets.[56]

Juwayriya bint al-Harith

She became one of the wives of Muhammad after having been taken captive after the battle of Banu Mustaliq. Her husband, Mustafa bin Safwan, had been killed in the battle. She initially fell among the booty of Muhammad's companion Thabit b. Qays b. Al-Shammas. Upset about this, Juwayriya sought a deed of redemption from Muhammad. Muhammad proposed to marry her and as a result freed her from the bondage of Thabit b. Qais and consequently ameliorated the condition of her captured tribe.[57]

Safiyah Bint Huyeiy Ibn Akhtab

Safiyah Bint Huyeiy Ibn Akhtab became one of the wives of Muhammad after having been taken captive in the war of Khaibar. She was the daughter of Huyeiy Ibn Akhtab, the chief of the Banu Nadir tribe, who were all expelled from Madinah in 4 AH after plotting against Muhammad. where her father and husband were killed in battle. She had formerly been the wife of Sallam ibn Mishkam, who divorced her. She was married to Kinana ibn al-Rabi'a just before the Muslims attacked Khaibar. She was then seventeen and known for her extreme beauty. Because she was the daughter of a tribal chief, she was given the offer of marrying the Prophet and remaining free, rather than be enslaved. She accepted this offer.

She greatly respected Muhammed as "Allah's Messenger". She was intelligent, learned and gentle. In fact, gentleness and patience were her dominant qualities. She had many good moral qualities.[58]

The hadith of ʿAbdul ʿAziz bin Ṣuhayb says:[59]

We conquered Khaibar, took the captives, and the booty was collected. Dihya came and said, 'O Allah's Prophet! Give me a slave girl from the captives.' The Prophet said, 'Go and take any slave girl.' He took Safiya bint Huyai. A man came to the Prophet and said, 'O Allah's Apostles! You gave Safiya bint Huyai to Dihya and she is the chief mistress of the tribes of Quraiza and An-Nadir and she befits none but you.' So the Prophet said, 'Bring him along with her.' So Dihya came with her and when the Prophet saw her, he said to Dihya, 'Take any slave girl other than her from the captives.' Anas added: The Prophet then manumitted her and married her.

Yes, indeed Safiyyah was angry at the Prophet at first but she forgave him later on. The Prophet Muhammad apologized to Safiyyah for the killing of her father and her husband by saying, "Your father charged the Arabs against me and committed heinous act," he apologized to the extent that made Safiyyah get rid of her bitterness against the Prophet.[60]

Saffiyah says, "I was my father's and my uncle's favorite child. When the Messenger of Allah came to Madinah and stayed at Quba, my parents went to him at night and when they looked disconcerted and worn out. I received them cheerfully but to my surprise no one of them turned to me. They were so grieved that they did not feel my presence. I heard my uncle, Abu Yasir, saying to my father, 'Is it really him?' He said, 'Yes, by Allah'. My uncle said: 'Can you recognize him and confirm this?' He said, 'Yes'. My uncle said, 'How do you feel towards him?' He said, 'By Allah I shall be his enemy as long as I live.'" [61]

The Prophet Muhammad made the following offer to her, as recorded by Martin Lings:

He [the Prophet Muhammad] then told Safiyyah that he was prepared to set her free, and he offered her the choice between remaining a Jewess and returning to her people or entering Islam and becoming his wife. "I choose God and His Messenger," she said; and they were married at the first halt on the homeward march.[62] Safiyyah moved to the house of the Prophet. He loved, appreciated and honored her to the extent that he made her say, "I have never seen a good-natured person as the Messenger of Allah".[63] Safiyyah(R) remained loyal to the Prophet until he died.[64]

The marriage to Safiyyah(R) had a political significance as well, as it helped to reduce hostilities and cement alliances. John L. Esposito notes that

As was customary for Arab chiefs, many were political marriages to cement alliances. Others were marriages to the widows of his companions who had fallen in combat and were in need of protection. [65]

This significant act of marrying Safiyyah(R) was indeed a great honour for her. Haykal notes that:

The Prophet granted her freedom and then married her, following the examples of great conquerors who married the daughters and wives of the kings whom they had conquered, partly in order to alleviate their tragedy and partly to preserve their dignity. [66]

By marrying Safiyyah, the Prophet aimed at ending the enmity and hostility adopted by the Jews against him and against Islam, all the way long, but alas they went on with their hatred for Islam and for the Prophet because he was not from their people as were most of the previous Prophets. Safiyyah said, "The Messenger of Allah went to Hajj with his wives. On the way my camel knelt down for it was the weakest among all the other camels and so I wept. The Prophet came to me and wiped away my tears with his dress and hands. The more he asked me not to weep the more I went on weeping." [67]

She gave some of the Prophet's other wives gifts from her jewels that she brought with her from Khaybar.[68]

Safiyyah was a humble worshiper and a pious believer. About her ibn Kathir said, "She was one of the best women in her worship, piousness, ascetism, devoutness, and charity".[69]

Safiyyah was a very charitable and generous woman. She used to give out and spend whatever she had for the sake of Allah to the extent that she gave out a house that she had when she was still alive.[70]

When Muhammad was in his final illness, Safiyah felt deep and sincere sadness for him. She said: "O Messenger of Allah, I wish it was I who was suffering instead of you." [58]

No mahr for Safiya

Safiya was not paid a mahr. Instead, Muhammad considered her freedom, from the slavery at the hands of his soldiers, to be her payment. In the hadith Anas[71] again is cited thus:

The Prophet stayed for three rights between Khaibar and Medina and was married to Safiya. I invited the Muslim[s] to h[i]s marriage banquet and there wa[s] neither meat nor bread in that banquet but the Prophet ordered Bilal to spread the leather mats on which dates, dried yogurt and butter were put. The Muslims said amongst themselves, "Will she (i.e. Safiya) be one of the mothers of the believers, (i.e. one of the wives of the Prophet ) or just (a lady captive) of what his right-hand possesses" Some of them said, "If the Prophet makes her observe the veil, then she will be one of the mothers of the believers (i.e. one of the Prophet's wives), and if he does not make her observe the veil, then she will be his lady slave." So when he departed, he made a place for her behind him (on his [camel)] and made her observe the veil.

Barra bint al-Harith

As part of the agreement of Hudaybiyah, Muhammad visited Mecca for the lesser pilgrimage. There Barra bint al-Harith proposed marriage to him.[72] Muhammad accepted, and thus married Barra, the sister-in-law of Abbas, a long time ally of his. By marrying her, Muhammad also established kinship ties with the Makhzum, his previous opponents.[73] As the Meccans did not allow him to stay any longer, Muhammad left the city, taking Barra with him. He called her "Maymuna" meaning blessed, as his marriage to her had also marked the first time in seven years when he could enter his hometown Mecca.[72]

Maria al Qibtiyya

Maria al-Qibtiyya was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave, sent as a gift to Muhammad from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official.[74]

Contrary to popular belief, Maria did not serve as Muhammad's concubine; According to Islamic history, it is clear that Muhammad accepted Maria and married her immediately,[citation needed] so she is therefore regarded as a Mother of the Believers. She got pregnant and bore him a son, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, who died in infancy.

Muhammad's widows

Location of grave of Fatema(marked *),wives(ajvaje) of Muhammed(central chamber amongst bunch of three) and others at J.Baqi,Medina
File:Grave of wives (ajvaje)of nabi Muhammad

According to the Qur'an, God forbade anyone to marry the wives of Muhammad, because of their respect and honour, after he died.

Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy Allah's Messenger, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time.[Quran 33:53]

The extent of Muhammad's property at the time of his death is unclear. Although Qur'an [2.180] clearly addresses issues of inheritance, Abu Bakr, the new leader of the Muslim ummah, refused to divide Muhammad's property among his widows and heirs, saying that he had heard Muhammad say:

We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity.[75]

Muhammad's widow Hafsa played a role in the collection of the first Qur'anic manuscript. After Abu Bakr had collected the copy, he gave it to Hafsa, who preserved it until Uthman took it, copied it and distributed it in Muslim lands.[76]

Some of Muhammad's widows were active politically in the Islamic state after Muhammad's death. Safiyya, for example, aided the caliph Uthman during his siege.[56] During the first fitna, some wives also took sides. Umm Salama, for example, sided with Ali, and sent her son Umar for help.[77] The last of Muhammad's wives, Umm Salama lived to hear about the tragedy of Karabala in 680, dying the same year.[77]

Family life

Muhammad and his family lived in small apartments adjacent the mosque at Medina. Each of these were six to seven spans wide (5.5 feet) and ten spans long (7.5 feet). The height of the ceiling was that of an average man standing. The blankets were used as curtains to screen the doors.[78] According to an account by Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number."[79]

Although Muhammad's wives had a special status as Mothers of the Believers, he did not allow them to use his status as a prophet to obtain special treatment in public.[80] The grave of wives of Muhammed are located at Jannat-ul-Baqi.

See also


  1. ^ Aleem, Shamim (2007). "12. Mothers of Believers". Prophet Muhammad(s) and His Family. AuthorHouse. p. 85. ISBN 9781434323576. 
  2. ^ Amira Sonbol, Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures
  3. ^ Watt (1956), p.287
  4. ^ Esposito (1998), pp. 16–8.
  5. ^ F. E. Peters (2003), p.84
  6. ^ Esposito (1998), p.18
  7. ^ Reeves (2003), p. 46
  8. ^ Muhammad al-Tijani in his The Shi'a: The Real Followers of the Sunnah on note 274
  9. ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal. The Life of Muhammad: "From Marriage to Prophethood." Translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Watt, "Aisha bint Abu Bakr", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  11. ^ Al-Shati, Bint (2006-12). The wives of the Prophet. Matti Moosa (trans.), D. Nicholas Ranson. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 52. ISBN 9781593333980. 
  12. ^ a b Vacca, V. (1995). "Sawda BT. Zamʿa B. Ḳayyis B. ʿAbd Shams". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 9 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 89–90. ISBN 90-04-10422-4. 
  13. ^ a b Wessels, Antonie (1972). A modern Arabic biography of Muḥammad: a critical study of Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal's Ḥayāt Muḥammad. Brill Archive. pp. 105–6. ISBN 9789004034150. 
  14. ^ a b c d D. A. Spellberg, Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: the Legacy of A'isha bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 40
  15. ^ a b Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper San Francisco, 1992, p. 157.
  16. ^ Barlas (2002), p.125-126
  17. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunnan Abu Dawud, 41:4917
  18. ^ Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7
  19. ^ The Ahmadiyya leader Maulana Muhammad Ali wrote in the first half of the 20th century that "there is not the least doubt that Aisha was at least nine or ten years of age at the time of betrothal, and fourteen or fifteen years at the time of marriage. See Zahid Aziz: Age of Aisha (ra) at time of marriage (The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement), retrieved August 7, 2010
  20. ^ Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad, 1992 U.S.A. edition, p. 30, note 40.
  21. ^ Nomani (1970), pg. 257-9
  22. ^ Nomani (1970), pg. 360
  23. ^ Watt(1956), pg.393
  24. ^ Watt(1956), pg.287
  25. ^ Lings (1983), p. 201
  26. ^ Lings (1983), p. 165
  27. ^ a b Lings (1983), p. 206
  28. ^ Nomani (1970), pg. 345
  29. ^ Umm Salamah. Courtesy of ISL Software. University of Southern California.
  30. ^ al-Baghdadi, Ibn Sa'd. Tabaqat. vol VIII, pg. 92–3. 
  31. ^ Watt (1956), 330-1
  32. ^ a b Freyer Stowasser (1996), p. 88, Oxford University Press
  33. ^ a b Watt (1974), page 158.
  34. ^ Caesar E. Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, p.69
  35. ^ Watt (1974), page 157-158.
  36. ^ Maududi, S. Abul A'la (1967). The Meaning of the Qur'an. 4. Islamic publications ltd.. p. 108. 
  37. ^ Fishbein, Michael (November 2010). The History Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. State University of New York Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0791431504. "Zaynab had dressed in haste when she was told "the Messenger of God is at the door." She jumped up in haste and excited the admiration of the Messenger of God, so that he turned away murmuring something that could scarcely be understood. However, he did say overtly: "Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be to God, who causes the hearts to turn!"" 
  38. ^ a b c Rodinson, page 207.
  39. ^ Nomani (1970). Sirat al-Nabi.
  40. ^ William Montgomery Watt (1974), p.233
  41. ^ Watt(1956), p.330-1
  42. ^ Watt, page 156.
  43. ^ a b c Freyer Stowasser (1996), p. 89
  44. ^ a b Peterson (2007), page 169-71
  45. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 121
  46. ^ Rodinson, page 196.
  47. ^ Lings (1983), pg. 241-2
  48. ^ Nomani, pg. 365-6
  49. ^ Watt (1961), p. 195
  50. ^ Umm Habibah: Ramlah Bin Abi Sufyan. IslamOnline.
  51. ^ a b Al-Shati', 1971, 171
  52. ^ Nomani(1970) p. 424.
  53. ^ Watt (1964) p. 195
  54. ^ V. Vacca, Safiyya bt. Huyayy b. Ak̲htab, Encyclopedia of Islam
  55. ^ Rodinson (1971), p. 254.
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  58. ^ a b Safiyah Bint Huyeiy Ibn Akhtab,
  59. ^ [1] Volume 1, Book 8, Number 367: Narrated 'Abdul 'Aziz
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  61. ^ Ibn Hisham, As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2, pp. 257-258
  62. ^ Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based On The Earliest Sources (George Allen & Unwin, 1983), p. 269
  63. ^ Abu Ya'la al-Mawsili, Musnad, vol. 13, p. 38, Cited in Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p.172)
  64. ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad (North American Trust Publications, p. 374
  65. ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, pp. 19-20
  66. ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad (North American Trust Publications, 1976), p. 373
  67. ^ Ahmad, vol.6, p. 337, Cited in Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p.176
  68. ^ Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.8, p.100, Cited in Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p.172
  69. ^ Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 47, Cited in Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p.177
  70. ^ Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 8, p. 102, Cited in Muhammad Fathi Mus'ad, The Wives of the Prophet Muhammad: Their Strives and Their Lives, p.178
  71. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 524
  72. ^ a b Al-Shati', 1971, 222-224
  73. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 1701
  74. ^ A. Guillaume (1955), p. 653
  75. ^ "The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa'l-Siyar)". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts,. University of Southern California. pp. Chapter 16, Book 019, Number 4351. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 
  76. ^ Al-Shati', 1971, p. 110
  77. ^ a b Al-Shati', 1971, p. 135
  78. ^ Numani, p. 259-60
  79. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:5:268: Narrated Qatada: Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number."
  80. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 168-9


Wives of Muhammad

  • Al-Shati, Bint (2006-12). The wives of the Prophet. Matti Moosa (trans.), D. Nicholas Ranson. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333980. 

Women in Islam

  • Freyer Stowasser, Barbara (1996). Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195111484. 
  • Mernissi, Fatima (originally published 1987 in French, 1991 english translation, Paperback 1993). The Veil and the Male Elite; A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam. Addison-Wesley (now Perseus Books). 
  • Khadduri, Majid (1978). "Marriage in Islamic Law: The Modernist Viewpoints". American Journal of Comparative Law (The American Society of Comparative Law) 26 (2): 213–218. doi:10.2307/839669. JSTOR 839669. 


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