Jeep Wagoneer


Jeep Wagoneer

Infobox Automobile


name = Jeep Wagoneer
manufacturer = Jeep
parent_company = Kaiser-Jeep (1960s)
American Motors Corporation (1970s-1987)
Chrysler Corporation (1987-1993)
production = 1963–1993
class = Full-size SUV (1963-1991)
Compact SUV (1993)
predecessor = Willys Jeep Wagon
successor = Jeep Grand Cherokee
layout = Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Infobox Automobile generation
name = SJ


engine = auto CID|230|1 "Tornado" I6
auto CID|258|1 "AMC" I6
auto CID|327|1 "Vigilante" V8
auto CID|350|1 Buick "Dauntless" V8
auto CID|360|1 "AMC" V8
auto CID|401|1 "AMC" V8
transmission = 3-speed manual
4-speed manual
3-speed GM "THM400" automatic
3-speed Chrysler "A727" automatic
width = convert|74.8|in|abbr=on
length = convert|186.4|in|abbr=on
body_style = 2-door truck
2-door SUV
4-door SUV
production = 1963-1991
aka = Jeep Grand Wagoneer (1984-1991)
height = convert|66.4|in|abbr=on
weight = convert|4514|lb|abbr=on
platform = Jeep SJ platform
assembly = Toledo, Ohio
wheelbase = 108.7 in (2761 mm)
related = Jeep Gladiator
Jeep Honcho
Jeep Cherokee
designer = Brooks Stevens

The Jeep Wagoneer was an early sport utility vehicle (SUV), produced under varying marques from 1963 to 1991. It was noteworthy for being in production for more than 28 years with only minor mechanical changes. An overhead cam engine, along with independent front suspension (both later discontinued), supplemented with features unheard of in any other 4WD vehicle (including power steering and automatic transmission), made it revolutionary at the time. A solid front axle was available as well. Compared with offerings from International Harvester and Land Rover — which were producing utilitarian work-oriented vehicles that were quite spartan and truck-like on the inside — the Wagoneer was the first true luxury 4x4. [http://imageevent.com/mmm_mag/1966to1969superwagoneerregistry;jsessionid=vqhtedbxx2.lion_s/ See PDF "Move Over, Range Rover"] The Wagoneer is based on the Jeep SJ platform. It debuted seven years (24 years in the United States) before the Land Rover Range Rover. It was also one of the last few vehicles sold in the United States that still used a carburetor, well after most other vehicles had switched to fuel injection. Only Isuzu with its base-model pickup truck would hold out longer, selling its last carbureted vehicle in 1993.

The Willys and Kaiser years

Conceived in the early 1960s while Willys Motors was owned by Kaiser Industries, the Wagoneer replaced the original Jeep station wagon, which dated to 1946. With competition from the Big Three advancing on Jeep's four-wheel-drive market, Willys management decided that a new and more advanced vehicle was needed.

The new 1963 Wagoneer, like its long-lived predecessor (which would, in fact, be sold alongside its replacement in the U.S. until 1965), was designed by industrial designer Brooks Stevens. Willys' engineering staff, under the direction of A.C. Sampietro, handled the technical development. The cost of development was around US$20 million. [ [http://home.off-road.com/~ozifsja/tech/history/hist_wag.htm History of the Wagoneer ] ]

The original Wagoneer was a full-size, body-on-frame vehicle which shared its architecture with the Jeep Gladiator pickup truck. It was originally available in two and four-door body styles, with the two-door also available as a panel truck with windowless sides behind the doors and double "barn doors" in the rear instead of the usual tailgate and roll-down rear window.

Early Wagoneers were powered by Willys' new "Tornado" SOHC auto CID|230|1 six-cylinder engine, which had debuted in 1962 as an option for Jeep's older-style station wagons. The engine developed Convert|140|hp|kW|0|abbr=on and was noted for being quite fuel-efficient for its day. However, the engine was not without its problems; cooling issues were fairly common. And, in higher-altitude locales, "pinging" was a problem, leading the company to introduce a lower-compression version of the Tornado that developed Convert|133|hp|kW|0|abbr=on for 1964.

1963-1964

In early 1963, Willys Motors changed its name to Kaiser Jeep Corporation. This was to associate Jeep in the public consciousness with Kaiser's family of companies, said company president Steven Girard. Early Wagoneers were powered by Willys' new Convert|140|hp|kW|0|abbr=on"Tornado" SOHC auto CID|230|1 inline six-cylinder engine, which had debuted in 1962 as an option for Jeep's older-style station wagons. Although quite fuel-efficient for its day, it was prone to cooling problems, and also “pinging" at higher altitudes, which led to the introduction of a lower-compression Convert|133|hp|kW|0|abbr=on version in 1964.

There were few other changes for 1964, except for the option of factory-installed air conditioning.

1965-1966

For 1965, the Wagoneer, together with the Gladiator pickup truck, was available with the Convert|250|hp|kW|0|abbr=on auto CID|327|1 AMC V8 engine, which proved a popular option. In 1966, the Tornado engine was replaced by American Motors' auto CID|232|1 OHV inline six. According to the automotive press this engine was smooth, powerful, reliable and easily-maintained. Fact|date=May 2008 1966 also saw the introduction of the more luxurious Super Wagoneer, initially with a higher-performance Convert|270|hp|kW|0|abbr=on version of the AMC V8, fitted with a four-barrel carburetor. With comfort and convenience features not found on other vehicles of its type at the time - e.g. push-button radio, seven-position tilt steering wheel, ceiling courtesy lights, air conditioning, power tailgate, power brakes, power steering, and console-shifted TH400 automatic transmission – the Super Wagoneer is now widely regarded as the precursor of today's luxury SUVs.It was made through 1969.

1967-1971

Two-wheel drive models, which the four-wheel-drives had outsold from the beginning, were discontinued after the 1967 model year, and at the end of 1968 the slow-selling two-door versions were also discontinued. For 1968 through 1971 Wagoneers were powered by Buick’s auto CID|350|1 Convert|230|hp|kW|0|abbr=on Dauntless V8. The Buick made less horsepower than the previous AMC V8 (230 hp vs. 250), but more torque at lower rpm (convert|350|ftlbf|Nm| at 2400 rpm vs. convert|340|ftlbf|Nm|abbr=on at 2600), and it had 5 main bearings instead of the AMC’s 4. From 1971, following AMC’s acquisition of Jeep, Wagoneers reverted to AMC power.

The AMC years

In early 1970 American Motors acquired Jeep and set about refining and upgrading the range. AMC also improved manufacturing efficiency and lowered costs by incorporating shared components such as engines. Reducing noise, vibration and harshness improved the Wagoneer driving experience. The outsourced Buick 350 was replaced by the auto CID|360 AMC V8, and later the auto CID|401 was made available.The innovative Quadra-Trac full-time four-wheel-drive system, which broadened the appeal of Jeep products to people who wanted four-wheel-drive traction without the inconvenience of a manual-shift transfer case and manual locking hubs, was introduced in 1973.In 1974 AMC resurrected the two-door Wagoneer as the Cherokee. This replaced the Jeepster Commando, whose sales had not met expectations despite an extensive 1972 revamp. The Cherokee appealed to a younger market than the Wagoneer, which was regarded more as a family SUV. There were few styling changes during this time. However after introducing the Cherokee, AMC began to move the Wagoneer upmarket, culminating in the 1978 Wagoneer Limited, which brought critical acclaim Fact|date=May 2008 and high demand from a new market segment. The Limited, more luxuriously equipped than the earlier Super Wagoneer, offered air conditioning, power-adjustable seats, power door locks, power windows, tilt steering wheel, cruise control, leather upholstery, plush carpeting and “wood grain” trim on the body sides. Even though the US$10,500 suggested retail price was in luxury Cadillac territory, Fact|date=May 2008 the Limited’s high-level specification attracted buyers and sales were strong. With the V8s the primary choice among Wagoneer buyers, the auto CID|258 six-cylinder engine was dropped in the 1970s, only to return as an option when Jeep sales – particularly of the high-volume Cherokee – were hit by the 1979 fuel crisis. (The Wagoneer continued to sell relatively well.Fact|date=May 2008) When reintroduced, the engine came with manual transmission as standard equipment, but in 1983 automatic transmission with “Selec-Trac” four-wheel drive became standard. With this combination the Wagoneer achieved EPA fuel-consumption estimates of convert|18|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on city and convert|25|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on highway – outstanding for a full-size SUV. [ [http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1963-1992-jeep-wagoneer-and-grand-wagoneer6.htm "1980-1989 Jeep Wagoneer" the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, undated document] , retrieved on April 27 2008.] This allowed the company to advertise good fuel mileage, although the more powerful 360 V8 remained popular with certain buyers despite its greater thirst for fuel.

XJ Wagoneer and Cherokee

The Wagoneer and Cherokee names were applied to the new, much-smaller and more fuel-efficient unibody XJ platform in 1984, but high demand prompted the company to keep the old SJ-body Wagoneer in production.

The full-sized Wagoneer Limited was renamed the Grand Wagoneer.

In mid-1984, Jeep introduced a less expensive version of the large "Grand" named the Wagoneer Custom. It did not have the simulated woodgrain exterior. Wheels were steel with hubcaps, and standard equipment was pared down. It had part-time four-wheel drive. Despite its lower price (US$15,995, about $3,000 less than the Grand), sales were poor.

The Grand Wagoneer remained "the gold standard of the SUV market" and it would continue in one version using the old SJ-body "for 1985 and beyond". [ [http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1963-1992-jeep-wagoneer-and-grand-wagoneer6.htm "1980-1989 Jeep Wagoneer" the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, undated document] , retrieved on April 27 2008.]

The Chrysler years

Despite its advancing age the Grand Wagoneer remained popular. Instrument panel, grille, and taillamps were redesigned for 1986, followed by minor revision to the woodgrained sides in 1987, the year that ownership of the company passed to Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler largely left the Grand Wagoneer alone, and even continued to build the Grand Wagoneer with the carbureted AMC V8 instead of its own (and, arguably, more modernFact|date=May 2008) fuel-injected V8s. Year-to-year changes were minimal; Chrysler added new features such as an overhead console taken from Chrysler's popular minivans and a rear-window wiper/washer system for 1989, but otherwise new model years through 1991 were marked only by new paint colors.

End of the line

By the time production of the Grand Wagoneer ended, Jeep's flagship model contained parts from all of the Big Three automakers and those "adopted" by Chrysler from AMC: Chrysler transmissions (the A727 automatic), GM steering columns, light switches, and transmissions (Turbo-Hydramatic 400 during the 1970s), Ford carburetors and electronic engine controls, and AMC engine (the 360 V8).

The final 1,560 SJ Grand Wagoneers were produced in the 1991 model year. Each had a "Final Edition" badge on the dashboard. A number of vehicles may have been produced as 1992 models to fulfill existing orders.Fact|date=February 2007

Grand Wagoneer parts, service and accessories are still available from various suppliers.

ZJ Grand Wagoneer

For 1993 Chrysler prepared the Jeep Grand Cherokee (originally designed by AMC) to replace both the discontinued flagship model and the smaller Cherokee. It had been delayed following Chrysler's purchase of AMC so Chrysler could redesign its hot-selling minivansFact|date=May 2008 for 1991.

However the Cherokee and Grand Wagoneer were still popular. Chrysler decided that the Cherokee could be kept viable with minor updates, whereas the cost of updating the Grand Wagoneer would be too great.

Replacing the full-size Grand Wagoneer with a vehicle that was intended to retain the model's loyal buyers, Chrysler introduced the compact Grand Wagoneer ZJ in 1993. It was based on the new Grand Cherokee.

Powered by Chrysler's Convert|220|hp|kW|0|abbr=on auto CID|318|1 "Magnum" V8, th ZJ had model-specific faux woodgrain trim (which tended to flake offFact|date=May 2008), model-specific leather seating and extra sound-deadening all standard. But it was smaller, offered less interior space, and lacked the familiar road presence of the original. Not a good seller, it was discontinued after the single 1993 model year.

Competition

The Wagoneer was occasionally used in rallying, mainly in the United States. Wagoneers placed first and second in the first-ever running of the Sno*Drift rally in 1973.Fact|date=May 2008

A Grand Wagoneer also competed in the 9,000-mile 1988 Trans-Amazon Rally.

Around the world

In Finland, starting in the late-1970s, Wagoneers were usually sold with a Valmet 411 Diesel engine (4.4 Litres Max. power convert|82|hp|abbr=on DIN at 2200 rpm, torque convert|306|Nm|ftlbf|abbr=on DIN at 1460 rpm ). Typical mileage with this engine was around convert|29|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|2|abbr=on and if a turbo was installed by the owner, mileage improved even more convert|8|L/100 km|abbr=on|2.

ee also

*Jerrari

References

External links

* [http://www.Teamgrandwagoneer.com/ Team Grand Wagoneer Parts and Accessories]
* [http://www.ifsja.org/ International Full Size Jeep Association]
* [http://www.vintagejeeps.net/ Vintage Jeeps]
* [http://wagoneers.com/ wagoneers.com]
* [http://wagonmasters.com/ wagonmasters.com]


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