Greenwich


Greenwich


Coordinates: 51°28′45″N 0°00′00″E / 51.4791°N 0.0000°E / 51.4791; 0.0000

Greenwich
312SFEC LONDON-20070917.JPG
Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich is located in Greater London
Greenwich

 Greenwich shown within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ395775
London borough Greenwich
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE10
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament Greenwich and Woolwich
London Assembly Greenwich and Lewisham
List of places: UK • England • London

Greenwich (UK play /ɡrɪnɪ/ grin-ij;[1][2] [3] US Listeni/ɡrɛnɪ/ gren-ich or /ɡrɛnɪ/ gren-ij)[4][5][6] is a district of south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich.

Greenwich is best known for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. The town became the site of a Royal palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century, and was the birthplace of many in the House of Tudor, including Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor. These buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, and they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public; other buildings are used by University of Greenwich and the Trinity College of Music.

The town became a popular resort in the 17th century with many grand houses, such as Vanbrugh castle established on Maze Hill, next to the park. From the Georgian period estates of houses were constructed above the town centre. The maritime connections of Greenwich were celebrated in the 20th century, with the sitting of the Cutty Sark and Gipsy Moth IV next to the river front, and the National Maritime Museum in the former buildings of the Royal Hospital School in 1934. Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created.

Contents

History

Toponomy

Grenewic, or Grenevic originates with the Saxons, and is literally the green village or the village on the green.[7] It became known as East Greenwich to distinguish it from West Greenwich or Deptford Strond, the part of Deptford adjacent to the Thames,[8] but the use of East Greenwich to mean the whole of the town of Greenwich died out in the 19th century. However, Greenwich was divided into the two Poor Law Unions of Greenwich East and Greenwich West from the beginning of Civil registration in 1837, the boundary running down what is now Greenwich Church Street and Crooms Hill, although more modern references to "East" and "West" Greenwich probably refer to the areas east and west of the Royal Naval College and National Maritime Museum corresponding with the West Greenwich council ward. An article in The Times of 13 October 1967 stated:

East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of London's heavy industry. West Greenwich is a hybrid: the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development.[9]

Early settlement

Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House,[10] in Greenwich Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds. To the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman villa or temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot. It was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius and Honorius to the 4th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4 programme Time Team in 2000,[11] and further investigations were made by the same group in 2003.[12]

The Roman road from London to Dover, Watling Street crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath. This followed the line of an earlier Celtic route from Canterbury to St Albans.[13] As late as Henry V, Greenwich was only a fishing town, with a safe anchorage in the river.[8]

Alphege and the Danes

During the reign of Ethelred the Unready, the Danish fleet anchored in the river Thames off Greenwich for over three years, with the army being encamped on the hill above. From here they attacked Kent, and in the year 1012, took the city of Canterbury, making Alphege the Archbishop their prisoner for seven months in their camp at Greenwich. They stoned him to death for his refusal to allow his ransom (3,000 pieces of silver) to be paid and kept his body, until the blossoming of a stick that had been immersed in his blood. For this miracle his body was released to his followers, he achieved sainthood for his martyrdom, and in the 12th century the parish church was dedicated to him. The present church on the site west of the town centre is St Alfege's Church, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor in 1714 and completed in 1718. Some vestiges of the Danish camps may be traced in the names of Eastcombe and Westcombe, on the borders of nearby Blackheath.[7]

Royal Greenwich

The Domesday Book records the manor of Greenwich as held by the Bishop Odo of Bayeux; his lands were seized by the crown in 1082. A royal palace, or hunting lodge, has existed here since before 1300, when Edward I is known to have made offerings at the chapel of the Virgin Mary.[7] Subsequent monarchs were regular visitors, with Henry IV making his will here, and Henry V granting the manor (for life) to Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, who died at Greenwich in 1417. The palace was created by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the regent to Henry VI in 1447; enclosing the park and erecting a tower on the spot of the Royal Observatory. It was renamed the Palace of Placentia or Pleasaunce by Henry VI's consort Margaret of Anjou after Humphrey's death. The palace was completed and further enlarged by Edward IV, and in 1466 it was granted to his Queen, Elizabeth.[7]

The palace was the principal residence of Henry VII, and his sons, Henry (later Henry VIII) and Edmund Tudor were born here, and baptised in St Alphege's. Henry favoured Greenwich over nearby Eltham Palace, the former principal royal palace. Both Mary (February 18, 1516) and Elizabeth (September 7, 1533) were born at Greenwich. The palace of Placentia, in turn, became Elizabeth's favourite summer residence.[7]

During the English Civil War, the palace was used as a biscuit factory and prisoner of war camp, then with the Interregnum, the palace and park were seized to become a 'mansion' for the Lord Protector. At The Restoration, the Palace of Placentia had fallen into disuse and was pulled down. New buildings began to be established as a grand palace for Charles II, but only the King Charles block was completed. It was suggested that the buildings be adapted for a Greenwich Hospital, designed by Wren, and later completed by Hawksmoor. Anne of Denmark had a house built by Inigo Jones on the hill above, now overlooking the hospital and river – the present centrepiece of the National Maritime Museum,[7] founded in 1934 and housed in the buildings of the former Royal Hospital School.

The Royal association with Greenwich was now broken, but the group of buildings remain that form the core of the World Historic Site.

To mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, it was announced on 5 January 2010 that in 2012, the London Borough of Greenwich is to become the fourth to have Royal Borough status. The three others being The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead Royal Borough. Due to its historic links with the Royal Family, and its status as home of the Prime Meridian and as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[14]

Governance

Greenwich is covered by the Greenwich West and Peninsula wards of the London Borough of Greenwich, which was formed in 1965 by merging the former Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich with that part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich which lay south of The Thames. Along with Blackheath Westcombe, Charlton, Glyndon, Woolwich Riverside, and Woolwich Common, it elects a Member of Parliament (MP) for Greenwich and Woolwich; currently the MP is Nick Raynsford.[15]

Geography

Topography

The town of Greenwich is built on a broad platform to the south of the outside of a broad meander in the River Thames, with a safe deep water anchorage lying in the river. To the south, the land rises steeply, 100 feet (30 m) through Greenwich Park to the town of Blackheath. The higher areas consist of a sedimentary layer of gravely soils, known as the Blackheath Beds, that spread through much of the south east over a chalk outcrop – with sands, loam and seams of clay at the lower levels by the river.

Greenwich is bordered by Deptford Creek and Deptford to the west; the former industrial centre of the Greenwich Peninsula, and the residential area of Westcombe Park to the east; the river Thames to the north; and the A2 and Blackheath common to the south.

The view from Greenwich Park, with the Queen's House and the wings of the National Maritime Museum in the foreground

Climate

These data were collected between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station situated in Greenwich:

Climate data for London (Greenwich)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
16.0
(60.8)
21.0
(69.8)
26.9
(80.4)
31.0
(87.8)
35.0
(95.0)
35.5
(95.9)
37.9
(100.2)
30.0
(86.0)
28.8
(83.8)
19.0
(66.2)
15.0
(59.0)
37.9
(100.2)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.4
(47.1)
11.4
(52.5)
14.2
(57.6)
17.9
(64.2)
21.1
(70.0)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
19.9
(67.8)
15.6
(60.1)
11.2
(52.2)
8.3
(46.9)
15.2
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.1
(35.8)
3.9
(39.0)
5.5
(41.9)
8.7
(47.7)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57.0)
13.7
(56.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.4
(47.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.7
(36.9)
7.4
Record low °C (°F) −10
(14.0)
−9
(15.8)
−8
(17.6)
−2
(28.4)
−1
(30.2)
5.0
(41.0)
7.0
(44.6)
6.0
(42.8)
3.0
(37.4)
−4
(24.8)
−5
(23.0)
−7
(19.4)
−10
(14.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
(2.173)
40.8
(1.606)
41.6
(1.638)
43.6
(1.717)
49.3
(1.941)
44.9
(1.768)
44.5
(1.752)
49.5
(1.949)
49.1
(1.933)
68.5
(2.697)
59.0
(2.323)
55.0
(2.165)
601.5
(23.681)
Snowfall cm (inches) 24.4
(9.61)
10.8
(4.25)
2.7
(1.06)
0.4
(0.16)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.08)
8.2
(3.23)
46.7
(18.39)
humidity 91 89 91 90 92 92 93 95 96 95 93 91 92.3
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 10.9 8.1 9.8 9.3 8.5 8.4 7.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 9.3 10.1 106.6
Avg. snowy days 4 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 16
Sunshine hours 45.9 66.1 103.2 147.0 185.4 180.6 190.3 194.4 139.2 109.7 60.6 37.8 1,460.2
Source no. 1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather,[16] except August maximum from Met Office[17]
Source no. 2: All other data from Met Office,[18] except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA[19]


Sites of interest

Riverfront

The Cutty Sark (a clipper ship) has been preserved in a dry dock by the river. A major fire in May 2007 destroyed a part of the ship, although much had already been removed for restoration. Nearby for many years was also displayed Gipsy Moth IV, the 54 feet (16.5 m) yacht sailed by Sir Francis Chichester in his single-handed, 226-day circumnavigation of the globe during 1966–67. In 2004, Gipsy Moth IV was removed from Greenwich, and after restoration work completed a second circumnavigation in May 2007. On the riverside in front of the north-west corner of the Hospital is an obelisk erected in memory of Arctic explorer Joseph René Bellot.

Boats at Greenwich at the end of the Great River Race

Near the Cutty Sark site, a circular building contains the entrance to the Greenwich foot tunnel, opened on 4 August 1902. This connects Greenwich to the Isle of Dogs on the northern side of the River Thames. The north exit of the tunnel is at Island Gardens,[20] from where the famous view of Greenwich Hospital painted by Canaletto can be seen.

Rowing has been part of life on the river at Greenwich for hundreds of years and the first Greenwich Regatta was held in 1785. The annual Great River Race along the Thames Tideway finishes at the Cutty Sark. The Trafalgar Rowing Centre in Crane Street close by is home to Curlew Rowing Club and Globe Rowing Club.

The Old Royal Naval College is Sir Christopher Wren's domed masterpiece at the centre of the heritage site. The site is administered by the Greenwich Foundation and several of the buildings are let to the University of Greenwich and one, the King Charles block, to Trinity College of Music. Within the complex is the former college dining room, the Painted Hall, this was painted by James Thornhill, and the Chapel of St Peter and St Paul, with an interior designed by James 'Athenian' Stuart. The Naval College had a training reactor, the JASON reactor, within the King William building that was operational between 1962 and 1996. The reactor was decommissioned and removed in 1999.[21]

To the east of the Naval College is the Trinity Hospital almshouse, founded in 1613, the oldest surviving building in the town centre.[22] This is next to the massive brick walls and the landing stage of Greenwich Power Station. Built between 1902 and 1910 as a coal-fired station to supply power to London's tram system, and later the London underground, it is now oil- and gas-powered and serves as a backup station for London Underground.[23] East Greenwich also has a small park, East Greenwich Pleasaunce, which was formerly the burial ground of Greenwich Hospital.

The O2 (formerly the Millennium Dome) was built on part of the site of East Greenwich Gas Works, a disused British Gas site on the Greenwich Peninsula.[24] It is next to North Greenwich tube station, about 3 miles (4.8 km) east from the Greenwich town centre, North West of Charlton. The Greenwich Millennium Village is a new urban regeneration development to the south of the Dome. Enderby's Wharf is a site associated with submarine cable manufacture for over 150 years.

Greenwich park

Behind the former Naval College is the National Maritime Museum housed in buildings forming another symmetrical group and grand arcade around the Queen's House, designed by Inigo Jones. Continuing to the south, Greenwich Park is a Royal Park of 183 acres (0.7 km2), laid out in the 17th century and formed from the hunting grounds of the Royal Palace of Placentia.[25]

Spiral staircase and lantern at the Queen's House in Greenwich

The park rises towards Blackheath and at the top of this hill is a statue of James Wolfe, commander of the British expedition to capture Quebec,[26] nearby a major group of buildings within the park is the former Royal Observatory, Greenwich and the Prime Meridian passes through the building. Greenwich Mean Time was at one time based on the time observations made at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, before being superseded by Coordinated Universal Time. While Greenwich no longer hosts a working astronomical observatory, a ball still drops daily to mark the exact moment of 1 p.m., and there is a museum of astronomical and navigational tools, particularly John Harrison's marine chronometers.[27]

The Ranger's House lies at the Blackheath end of the park and houses the Wernher Collection of art,[28] and many fine houses, including Vanbrugh's house lie on Maze Hill, on the western edge of the park.

Town centre

Georgian and Victorian architecture dominates in the town centre which spreads to the west of the park and Royal Naval college. Much of this forms a one-way system around a covered market, Greenwich Market and the arthouse Greenwich Cinema. Up the hill, from the centre there are many streets of Georgian houses, including the world's only museum dedicated to fans, the Fan Museum, on Croom's Hill. Nearby at the junction of Croom's Hill with Nevada Street, is Greenwich Theatre, formerly Crowder's Music Hall – one of two Greenwich theatres, the other being the Greenwich Playhouse.

Greenwich Mean Time

Royal Observatory with the time ball atop the Octagon Room

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. It is commonly used in practice to refer to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when this is viewed as a time zone, especially by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service,[29] the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others, although strictly UTC is an atomic time scale which only approximates GMT with a tolerance of 0.9 second. It is also used to refer to Universal Time (UT), which is a standard astronomical concept used in many technical fields and is referred to by the phrase Zulu time.

As the United Kingdom grew into an advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept at least one chronometer on GMT in order to calculate their longitude from the Greenwich meridian, which was by convention considered to have longitude zero degrees (this convention was internationally adopted in the International Meridian Conference of 1884). Note that the synchronization of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time itself, which was still solar time. But this practice, combined with mariners from other nations drawing from Nevil Maskelyne's method of lunar distances based on observations at Greenwich, eventually led to GMT being used worldwide as a reference time independent of location. Most time zones were based upon this reference as a number of hours and half-hours "ahead of GMT" or "behind GMT".

World heritage site

Maritime Greenwich *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Old Royal Naval College and University of Greenwich buildings on the bank of the River Thames
Country United Kingdom
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Reference 795
Region ** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1997 (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

In 1997, Maritime Greenwich was added to the list of World Heritage Sites, for the concentration and quality of buildings of historic and architectural interest. These can be divided into the group of buildings along the riverfront, Greenwich park and the Georgian and Victorian town centre. In recognition of the suburb's astronomical links, Asteroid 2830 has been named 'Greenwich'.[30]

Discover Greenwich Visitor Centre

The Discover Greenwich Visitor Centre provides an introduction to the history and attractions in the Greenwich World Heritage Site. It is located in the Pepys Buildings near to the Cutty Sark within the grounds of the Old Royal Naval College, (formerly Greenwich Hospital). The centre opened in March, 2010, and admission is free.[31]

The Centre explains the history of Greenwich as a royal residence and a maritime centre. Exhibits include:

  • The history of the Palace of Placentia.
  • Models of Christopher Wren's original designs for Greenwich Hospital.
  • Six of the carved heads originally intended to decorate the exterior of the College's Painted Hall.
  • Exhibition displays about Maritime Greenwich and its connections with the sea and exploration.
  • "By Wisdom as much as War" – an exhibition about the history of the Royal Naval College during the years it occupied Greenwich Hospital (1873–1998).

Greenwich Heritage Centre

Greenwich Heritage Centre is a museum and local history resource run by the London Borough of Greenwich,[32] and is based in Artillery Square, in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, south-east London.[33]

It was established in October 2003, combining materials from the Greenwich Borough Museum and the local history library (previously at Woodlands House in Westcombe Park).[34]

Economy

The market

There has been a market at Greenwich since the 14th century, but the history of the present market dates from 1700 when a charter to run two markets, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, was assigned by Lord Romney to the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital for 1000 years.

Greenwich Market also has a variety of bargain clothes on offer

Greenwich Market sits in Greenwich town centre within an area called the Island Site, which is bounded by College Approach, Greenwich Church Street, King William Walk and Nelson Road. The Island site forms part of the World Heritage Site, which also includes the National Maritime Museum, Old Royal Naval College, the Queens House and the Royal Observatory.

The buildings surrounding the market on the island site are Grade 2 listed, and were established in 1827–1833 under the direction of Joseph Kay. Later significant phases of development occurred in 1902–08; in 1958–60 and during the 1980s. The current market roof dates from 1902–08 and the buildings on either side of the market from 1958–60.

Greenwich Market trades five days a week, being closed on Monday and Tuesday, but the shops, cafes, bars, pubs and restaurants around the Market are open seven days a week, including Greenwich Printmakers, the oldest-established printmaking co-operative in the UK.

Wednesday is a food and homewares market day, Thursdays and Fridays specialise in antiques and collectibles and arts and crafts. Weekends and bank holidays attract arts & crafts and food stalls.There are a wide selection of specialist shops, bars, restaurants and a café, all open seven days a week.

Plans to redevelop the market by its owners, Greenwich Hospital,[35] were unanimously rejected by Greenwich Council's Planning Board in August 2009.

Education

The University of Greenwich main campus is located in the distinctive buildings of the former Royal Naval College. There is a further campus of the university at Avery Hill in Eltham, and also, outside the borough, in Medway. Near the main campus at Greenwich, the Trinity College of Music is housed in the buildings of the former Greenwich Hospital. Also Greenwich is a nice place for education trips.

Transport

Two railway lines cross Greenwich:[36] the Greenwich Line, which runs west to east and follows the route of the London and Greenwich Railway, which was the first railway line in London,[37][38] and links the South Eastern Main Line with the North Kent Line at Charlton; and the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which runs north to south. Both lines are served by Greenwich station; with the DLR having a separate station at Cutty Sark DLR Station near the river, and the Greenwich Line having Maze Hill railway station to the east, on the boundary with Westcombe Park. DLR trains run from Lewisham to Bank and Stratford via Canary Wharf.[39] The Greenwich Line carries trains from London Charing Cross and London Cannon Street in central London to Dartford in Kent, with a limited service to Gravesend, Kent and Gillingham, Medway. There are no London Underground stations in Greenwich itself – North Greenwich tube station on the Peninsula is the nearest tube station.

There are a number of river boat services running from Greenwich Pier, managed by London River Services. The main services include the Thames commuter catamaran service run by Thames Clipper from Embankment, via Tower Millennium Pier, Canary Wharf and on to the O2 and Woolwich Arsenal Pier;[40] the Wesminster-Greenwich cruise service by Thames River Services; and the City Cruises tourist cruise via Westminster, Waterloo and Tower piers.[41]

Pedestrian and cyclists

The Thames Path National Trail runs along the riverside.[42] The Greenwich foot tunnel provides pedestrian access to the southern end of the Isle of Dogs, across the river Thames.

National Cycle Network route 1 runs through the foot tunnel (although cycles must not be ridden in the tunnel itself).[43]

See also

  • List of people from Greenwich

References

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  2. ^ Jones, Daniel (1997). English Pronouncing Dictionary (15th edition ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45903-6. 
  3. ^ Collins English Dictionary (3rd updated edition ed.). HarperCollins. 1994. ISBN 0-00-470678 1. 
  4. ^ "Greenwich Mean Time". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin. 2001. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/Greenwich+Mean+Time. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Greenwich" in Merriam–Webster
  6. ^ "Greenwich" in Webster's New World Dictionary
  7. ^ a b c d e f 'Greenwich', The Environs of London: volume 4: Counties of Herts, Essex & Kent (1796), pp. 426–93 accessed: 26 May 2007
  8. ^ a b Parishes: Greenwich, The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 1 (1797), pp. 372–420
  9. ^ "Greenwich-the instant village", Brandon Green, The Times, 13 October 1967; pg. 11
  10. ^ Flamsteed House – designed and built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1675–76, was the home of the first Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and the heart of Charles II's new Royal Observatory.
  11. ^ "A Roman temple in sight of the Millennium Dome Greenwich". Channel 4. 12 March 2000. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/archive/2000greenwich.html. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Greenwich London". Channel 4. 2 February 2003. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2003_greenwich.html. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  13. ^ The Roman Watling Street: from London to High Cross O. Roucoux, (Dunstable Museum Trust, 1984) ISBN 0-9508406-2-9
  14. ^ "Greenwich to become Royal Borough". Greenwich London Borough Council. 5 January 2010. http://www.greenwich.gov.uk/Greenwich/LeisureCulture/RoyalGreenwich/RoyalGreenwich.htm. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  15. ^ "ukpollingreport.co.uk » Greenwich and Woolwich". ukpollingreport.co.uk. http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/guide/seat-profiles/greenwichandwoolwich. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  16. ^ "London, Greater London: Average conditions". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5wpjdyrKA. 
  17. ^ "August 2003 — Hot spell". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5wpjI9SEw. 
  18. ^ "Met Office: Climate averages 1971-2000". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5wpl3HnmR. 
  19. ^ "NOAA". NOAA. ftp://dossier.ogp.noaa.gov/GCOS/WMO-Normals/RA-VI/UK/03776.TXT. 
  20. ^ The Foot Tunnel (Greenwich Guide) accessed 10 December 2007
  21. ^ Just another source of neutrons? R.J.S. Lockwood and Prof. P.A. Beeley (Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan, Gosport, 2001) accessed 29 December 2007
  22. ^ Trinity Hospital (LB Greenwich) accessed 10 December 2007
  23. ^ Greenwich Power Station (Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007
  24. ^ East Greenwich Gasworks (Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007. The Greenwich Peninsula gas works, being themselves notable, as being the subject of an IRA bomb attack in the 1970s, in which one gasometer – and its contents – were spectacularly destroyed.
  25. ^ Greenwich and Blackheath Past Felix Barker (Historical Publications Ltd., 1999) ISBN 0 948667 55 9
  26. ^ General Wolfe Statue (Greenwich Guide) accessed 10 December 2007
  27. ^ Greenwich Time and the Longitude Derek Howse (London: Philip Wilson, 1997) ISBN 0-85667-468-0
  28. ^ The Wernher Collection (Ranger's House) (English Heritage) accessed 10 December 2007
  29. ^ What is GMT? at the BBC Radio World Service
  30. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names Lutz D. Schmadel (Springer 2003) ISBN 3540002383
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  33. ^ "Greenwich Heritage Centre – How To Find Us". www.greenwichheritage.org. http://www.greenwichheritage.org/howto/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-18. 
  34. ^ "Combined services (From This Is Local London)". www.thisislocallondon.co.uk. http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/398196.combined_services/. Retrieved 2009-09-18. 
  35. ^ "- Greenwich Market Consultation". www.greenwichmarketconsultation.org.uk. http://www.greenwichmarketconsultation.org.uk/. Retrieved 2009-09-18. 
  36. ^ "Greenwich Council – Travel & transport – Travel". www.greenwich.gov.uk. http://www.greenwich.gov.uk/Greenwich/Travel/. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
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  39. ^ "Greenwich Council – Local travel services – Docklands Light Railway". www.greenwich.gov.uk. http://www.greenwich.gov.uk/Greenwich/Travel/LocalTravelServices/DocklandsLightRailway.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  40. ^ "Greenwich Council – Local travel services – Thames Clipper". www.greenwich.gov.uk. http://www.greenwich.gov.uk/Greenwich/Travel/LocalTravelServices/ThamesClipper.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  41. ^ "Greenwich Council – Local travel services – River boat cruises". www.greenwich.gov.uk. http://www.greenwich.gov.uk/Greenwich/Travel/LocalTravelServices/RiverBoatCruise.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  42. ^ "The Thames Path – Greenwich to the London Eye". www.thames-path.org.uk. http://www.thames-path.org.uk/thames_greenwich_eye.html. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  43. ^ "National Cycle Network in London". Sustrans. http://www.sustrans.org.uk/sustrans-near-you/london/ncn-in-london. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 

External links

London/Greenwich travel guide from Wikitravel


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Greenwich — hat folgende Bedeutungen: In London Greenwich (London), Stadtteil Londons London Borough of Greenwich, Stadtbezirk von Greater London (seit 1965) Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich, ehemaliger Stadtbezirk der County of London (1889–1965) Orte in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Greenwich — es: Greenwich: uno de los municipios que forman la ciudad de Londres (Gran Bretaña) Greenwich: uno de los barrios que forman el municipio anterior. Greenwich Village: Area residencial en el lado oeste de Manhattan. Greenwich Mean Time: Tiempo… …   Wikipedia Español

  • GREENWICH — L’un des trente deux boroughs (ou arrondissements) du Grand Londres, Greenwich comptait 85 000 habitants au recensement de 1961. En 1964, Greenwich et Woolwich (qui avait 145 000 habitants en 1961) ont fusionné et pris le nom du premier. La… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Greenwich — ● Greenwich: uno de los boroughs (distritos administrativos) que forman la ciudad de Londres Gran Bretaña ● Greenwich Village: Area residentical en el lado oeste de Manhattan. ● Greenwich Mean Time: Tiempo solar. ● Meridiano de Greenwich:… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Greenwich — Greenwich, NY U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 1902 Housing Units (2000): 852 Land area (2000): 1.485456 sq. miles (3.847314 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.485456 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Greenwich — town on the south bank of the Thames adjoining London, O.E. Grenewic (964), lit. Green Harbor. The Royal Observatory there founded June 22, 1675, by King Charles II specifically to solve the problem of finding longitude while at sea. In October… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Greenwich, NY — U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 1902 Housing Units (2000): 852 Land area (2000): 1.485456 sq. miles (3.847314 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.485456 sq. miles (3.847314 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Greenwich, OH — U.S. village in Ohio Population (2000): 1525 Housing Units (2000): 610 Land area (2000): 1.356780 sq. miles (3.514045 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.017465 sq. miles (0.045234 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.374245 sq. miles (3.559279 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Greenwich — (izg. grȉnič) m DEFINICIJA geogr. JI dio Velikog Londona u kojem je bila kraljevska zvjezdarnica, sada muzej; kroz G., prema konvenciji iz 1884, prolazi zamišljeni nulti meridijan, polazište za određivanje geografske dužine i vremena na cijeloj… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Greenwich — (spr. grínnitsch ), 1) Verwaltungsbezirk (metropolitan borough) in der engl. Grafschaft London (s. Karte »Umgebung pou London«), rechts an der Themse, mit (1901) 95,770 Einw., ist weltberühmt durch sein großartiges ehemaliges Hospital für… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Greenwich — [gren′ich; , grin′ij; ] for 2, also [ grēn′wich] 1. Greenwich borough of Greater London, England, located on the prime meridian: pop. 208,000: formerly the site of an astronomical observatory: see HERSTMONCEUX 2. suburb of Stamford, in SW Conn.:… …   English World dictionary


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