Bass flute

Bass flute

The bass flute is the bass member of the flute family. It is in the key of C, pitched one octave below the concert flute. Because of the length of its tube (approximately 146 cm), it is usually made with a "J" shaped head joint, which brings the embouchure hole within reach of the player. It is usually only used in flute choirs, as it is easily drowned out by other instruments of comparable register, such as the clarinet.

Alternate terminology

Prior to the mid-20th century, the term "bass flute" was sometimes used, especially in Great Britain, to refer to the alto flute instead ( for example: the part for "bass flute in G" in Gustav Holst's "The Planets").

Range and construction

The instrument's sounding range is from C3, one octave below middle C, to C6 two ledger lines above the staff. Bass flute music is written an octave higher than it sounds which is the typical concert flute range (C4 to C7). Notes written above A6 are not often used as they are difficult to produce and have inferior tone. Because manufacturers do not taper the flute body through the curve, intonation of all notes beginning with written D6 and higher tend sharp. The player can bend them in tune through blowing technique or use alternate fingerings.

Bass flutes often have a C foot rather than the B foot common to other flutes. The shorter tube reduces acoustic resistance which quickens the response and brightens the tone, making it more lively and resonant. It also makes it lighter so it doesn't wear out the arms of player.

Bass flutes are most often made with silver plated bodies and head joints. Most basses come with trill keys which allow the player to stabilize some otherwise unstable middle register notes as well as trill between otherwise impossible notes. Kotato basses have solved the weight problem of bass flutes by designing a graphite rod which screws onto the underside of the instrument which then rests on the chair seat between the players legs. Adjustable rods have been developed by Jeff Amos. Other manufacturers have added a left hand thumb support called a crutch which helps some players to physically control the instrument.


Many composers are beginning to write more for the bass flute including Katherine Hoover's "Two for Two", Bill Douglas's "Karuna", Mike Mower's "Obstinato" and "Scareso", Gary Schocker's "A Small Sonata for a Large Flute", Sonny Burnett's "Stone Suite" and Catherine McMichael's "Baikal Journey" and Ennio Morricone's "Secrets of the Sahara". Other important works include Tristan Murail's "Ethers" for solo bass flute and small ensemble, Brian Ferneyhough's Mnemosyne for bass flute and tape. Studies and concert etudes are beginning to appear that address the many challenges of serious players (balancing the instrument, finger technique, air stream, overblowing, etc.). Peter Sheridan has commissioned and arranged new compositions in this area, including a set of 'Etudes for Low Flutes' by Hilary Taggart. The sixth movement of Claude Bolling's suite for Flute and Jazz Trio, 'Versatile' has the soloist playing the opening melody on a bass flute. For an extensive list of repertoire for bass flute and contrabass flute see: Peter van Munster, R"epertoire Catalogue for Piccolo, Alto Flute and Bass Flute", Roma: Riverberi Sonori, 2004 and the website [] for a searchable and downloadable catalogue. Selected repertoire graded into ability levels with short descriptions and information about basses can be found in "The Alto and Bass Flute Resource Guide" published by Falls House Press.


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