Central Algonquian languages


Central Algonquian languages

Infobox Language family
name=Central Algonquian
region=North America
familycolor=American
fam1=Algic
fam2=Algonquian
child1=Anishinaabemowin
child2=Cree-Montagnais
child3=Fox-Sauk-Kickapoo
child4=Menominee
child5=Miami-Illinois
child6=Potawatomi
child7=Shawnee
The Central Algonquian languages are commonly grouped together as a subgroup of the larger Algonquian family, itself a member of the Algic family. Though this grouping is often encountered in the literature, it is an areal grouping rather than a genetic one. In other words, the languages are grouped together because they were spoken near each other, not because they are any closer related to one another than to any other Algonquian language. Within the Algonquian family, only Eastern Algonquian constitutes a separate genetic subgroup.

Within the Central Algonquian grouping, the only languages known to be more closely related to each other than to any other Algonquian languages are Potawatomi and Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe), which are generally grouped together in an Ojibwe-Potawatomi subbranch. However, there is some evidence for a larger subbranch within Central Algonquian, called "Eastern Great Lakes" by some [e.g. Costa, David J. (2003). "The Miami-Illinois Language". Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, pg. 1] and "Core Central" by Goddard (1994), consisting of Ojibwe-Potawatomi, Miami-Illinois, Fox-Sauk-Kickapoo, and Shawnee, and excluding Cree-Montagnais and Menominee. This grouping has been suggested on the basis of certain lexical and phonological innovations, though this theory has not yet been fully fleshed out and is still considered conjectural.

Family division

The languages are listed below along with dialects and subdialects. This classification follows Goddard (1996) and Mithun (1999).

1. Cree-Montagnais: i. Cree::* Plains Cree::* Woods Cree::* Western Swampy Cree::* Eastern Swampy Cree and Moose Cree::* Atikamekw "(also known as Attikamek, Attikamekw, Atikamek or Tête de Boule)": ii. Montagnais-Naskapi::* East Cree "(also known as James Bay Cree or Eastern Cree)"::** Northern East Cree::** Southern East Cree::* Naskapi::* Montagnais "(also known as Innu-aimun or Innu)"2. Menominee (also known as Menomini)
I. Eastern Great Lakes (also known as Core Central): a. Ojibwe-Potawatomi (also known as Ojibwe-Potawatomi-Ottawa, Anishinaabemowin, or the Anishinaabe language):: 3. Anishinaabemowin (also known as Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Ojibway, or the Anishinaabe language)::: i. Northern::::* Algonquin::::* Anishininiimowin "(also known as Severn Ojibwe, Oji-Cree, or the Anishinini language)"::: ii. Southern::::* Saulteaux "(also known as Nakawēmowin, Plains Ojibwe or Western Ojibwe)"::::* Eastern Ojibwe::::* Southwestern Ojibwe "(also known as Chippewa, Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Ojibway)"::::* Ottawa "(also known as Odawa)"::::* Northern Ojibwe "(also known as Northwestern Ojibwe)"::::* Nipissing Algonquin "(also known simply as Algonquin)":: 4. Potawatomi: 5. Fox (also known as Fox-Sauk-Kickapoo or Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo)::* Fox "(also known as Meskwaki, Mesquakie, or Meshkwahkihaki)"::* Sauk "(also known as Sac and Fox)"::* Kickapoo::* Mascouten (unattested): 6. Shawnee: 7. Miami-Illinois::* Miami::* Illinois::* Peoria::* Wea

References

ee also

*Algonquian languages
*Proto-Algonquian language
*Algonquian peoples

External links

* [http://www.native-languages.org/famalg.htm Algonquian Family]
* [http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/naind/html/na_001400_algonquianla.htm Algonquian languages]

Bibliography

* Campbell, Lyle (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Goddard, Ives (1994). "The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology." In William Cowan, ed., "Papers of the 25th Algonquian Conference" 187-211. Ottawa: Carleton University.
*———— (1996). "Introduction". In Ives Goddard, ed., "Languages". Vol. 17 of William Sturtevant, ed., "The Handbook of North American Indians". Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
* Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.) (2000). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world", (14th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-106-9. Online edition: http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed on Mar. 3, 2005.
* Mithun, Marianne (1999). "The languages of Native North America". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.

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