List of United States Navy four-star admirals


List of United States Navy four-star admirals

This is a complete list of four-star admirals in the United States Navy. The rank of admiral (or "full admiral", or "four-star admiral") is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy. It ranks above vice admiral ("three-star admiral") and below fleet admiral ("five-star admiral").

There have been 246 four-star admirals in the history of the U.S. Navy. Of these, 205 achieved that rank while on active duty, 40 were promoted upon retirement in recognition of combat citations, and one was promoted posthumously. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 220 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 14 via Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), 8 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 2 via warrant, one via the U.S. Merchant Marine, and one via the United States Military Academy (USMA).

List of admirals

Entries in the following list of four-star admirals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the admiral's name, date of rank,Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the "Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships", or from the U.S. Navy register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the "World Almanac and Book of Facts". The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to admiral, and may differ from the officer's entry in the U.S. Navy register, which lists admirals who reverted to their permanent ranks of rear admiral as ranking from the date of the legislation that ultimately restored them to the rank of admiral, not from the dates of their original appointments.] active-duty positions held while serving at four-star rank,Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to admiral. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to four-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty.] number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank (Yrs),The number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty four-star assignments is not counted, nor is time spent on special duty as an unassigned fleet admiral.] year commissioned and source of commission,The year commissioned is taken to be the year the officer graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, or equivalent, which may precede the officer's actual date of commission by up to two years. Prior to 1912, graduates of the U.S. Naval Academy were required by law to serve two years at sea as passed midshipmen before receiving their commission as ensign. Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Naval Academy (USNA), Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), Officer Candidate School (OCS), warrant; the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA), and the United States Military Academy (USMA).] number of years in commission when promoted to four-star rank (YC),The number of years in commission before being promoted to four-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.] and other biographical notes.Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other four-star officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.]

The list is sortable by last name, date of rank, number of years of active-duty service at four-star rank, year commissioned, and number of years in commission when promoted to four-star rank.

Tombstone admirals

The Act of Congress of March 4, 1925 allowed officers in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard to be promoted one grade upon retirement if they had been specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat. Combat citation promotions were colloquially known as "tombstone promotions" because they conferred the prestige of the higher rank but not the additional retirement pay, so their only practical benefit was to allow recipients to engrave a loftier title on their business cards and tombstones. The Act of Congress of February 23, 1942 enabled tombstone promotions to three- and four-star grades. Tombstone promotions were subsequently restricted to citations issued before January 1, 1947, and finally eliminated altogether effective November 1, 1959.

Any admiral who actually served in a grade while on active duty receives precedence on the retired list over any tombstone admiral holding the same retired grade. Tombstone admirals rank among each other according to the dates of their highest active duty grade.

The following list of tombstone admirals is sortable by last name, date of rank as vice admiral, date retired, and year commissioned.

Timeline

Four-star positions

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1866 - 1940

The rank of admiral was created in 1866 to honor the Civil War achievements of David G. Farragut. Upon his death, another Civil War hero, David D. Porter Jr., succeeded to the title. In 1873, Congress stated that further vacancies in the grade would not be filled, and the rank lapsed with Porter's death in 1890. Congress revived the rank in 1899 to honor George Dewey, stipulating that the grade would again cease to exist upon his death or retirement. In 1903, Dewey was promoted to the unique rank of The Admiral of the Navy, which during his lifetime was considered to be equivalent to an admiral of the fleet, but was later declared to be senior to the five-star grade of fleet admiral.

The Act of March 3, 1915 provided that the commanders in chief of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets would have the rank of admiral while so serving, and their seconds in command the rank of vice admiral. In 1916, the chief of naval operations was also made an admiral while so serving, ranking next after The Admiral of the Navy. The ranks of admiral and vice admiral were strictly temporary appointments for the duration of an officer's tour in designated billets, and the temporary admiral reverted to his permanent grade of rear admiral immediately upon vacating the office bearing the title.

In 1917, Congress accommodated the Navy's desire to reorganize the fleet by authorizing the President to appoint three admirals and three vice admirals for any six fleet command positions. All fleet command tours lasted one year except for the commander in chief of the U.S. Fleet, whose term was sometimes renewed for a second year, and the commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, whose command was considered a backwater. (The chief of naval operations was appointed for four years.) Officers would typically "fleet up" to admiral or vice admiral for their year of fleet command and then revert to rear admiral to mark time until mandatory retirement.

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1941 - present

During World War II, the President was authorized to create as many admirals and vice admirals as he deemed necessary for the duration of the emergency. Most of these new creations retired at the end of the war, having been promoted to reward service in the fleet or headquarters, or to achieve parity with wartime counterparts. Although three- and four-star ranks remained temporary appointments, the practice of reverting to a lower grade pending retirement largely halted after 1942, when Congress authorized officers to be retired in the highest grade in which they served on active duty.Act of Congress of July 16, 1942.] The rank of fleet admiral was created in 1944, and the four officers promoted to that grade were allowed to remain on active duty permanently.

By 1956, the Navy had equilibrated at a total of seven permanent billets bearing four-star rank: the chief of naval operations (CNO); the vice chief of naval operations (VCNO), the commanders in chief of the unified commands in the Pacific (CINCPAC) and Atlantic (CINCLANT); the commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT); the commander in chief of U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (CINCNELM) (retitled commander in chief of U.S. Naval Forces Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR) in 1960); and the commander in chief of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces in Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH). In 1965, an eighth billet was added when the chief of naval material (CNM) was promoted to admiral. Occasionally this count would fluctuate when a Navy officer was selected as the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), as the chairman's four-star representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), or as the director or deputy director of central intelligence; or by special legislation.In 1994, special legislation authorized Charles R. Larson to resume the superintendency of the U.S. Naval Academy, then a two-star billet, as a full admiral.]

When the long-serving director of the naval nuclear reactor program, Hyman G. Rickover, was finally compelled to retire in 1982, his successor was promoted to admiral and appointed director of naval nuclear propulsion, institutionalizing the position as a permanent four-star billet. To compensate, another four-star billet was eliminated by merging Allied Forces Southern Europe with U.S. Naval Forces Europe. Similarly, when the U.S. Atlantic Fleet commander (CINCLANTFLT) was separated from the Atlantic unified commander in 1985, the number of four-star billets was conserved by eliminating the chief of naval material position. The U.S. Atlantic Fleet was replaced by U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFLTFORCOM) in 2006.

With the end of the Cold War, U.S. Atlantic Command was repurposed as the joint force trainer, becoming U.S. Joint Forces Command in 1999. The change in mission cost the Navy its traditional monopoly over that command, which has since rotated among all the services, but the Navy made up the difference through repeated appointments to other combatant commands and to the vice chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS). All military commanders in chief were retitled "Commanders" in 2002, when the title of "Commander in Chief" was reserved solely to the President of the United States.

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Mitscher" bar:conolly from: 1946 till: 1950 color:general text:"Richard L. Conolly" bar:blandy from: 1947 till: 1950 color:cinclant text:"William H.P. Blandy" bar:denfeld from: 1947 till: 1947 color:general bar:denfeld from: 1947 till: 1948 color:cincpac bar:denfeld from: 1948 till: 1949 color:cno text:"Louis E. Denfeld" bar:radford from: 1949 till: 1953 color:cincpac bar:radford from: 1953 till: 1957 color:jcs text:"Arthur W. Radford" bar:sherman from: 1949 till: 1951 color:cno text:"Forrest P. Sherman" bar:fechteler from: 1950 till: 1951 color:cinclant bar:fechteler from: 1951 till: 1953 color:cno bar:fechteler from: 1953 till: 1956 color:nato text:"William M. Fechteler" bar:carney from: 1950 till: 1952 color:general bar:carney from: 1952 till: 1953 color:nato bar:carney from: 1953 till: 1955 color:cno text:"Robert B. Carney" bar:mccormick from: 1950 till: 1951 color:vcno bar:mccormick from: 1951 till: 1954 color:cinclant text:"Lynde D. McCormick" bar:donaldduncan from: 1951 till: 1956 color:vcno text:"Donald B. Duncan" bar:stump from: 1953 till: 1958 color:cincpac text:"Felix B. Stump" bar:wright from: 1954 till: 1960 color:cinclant text:"Jerauld Wright" bar:cassady from: 1954 till: 1956 color:general text:"John H. Cassady" bar:burke from: 1955 till: 1961 color:cno text:"Arleigh A. Burke" bar:briscoe from: 1956 till: 1959 color:nato text:"Robert P. Briscoe" bar:boone from: 1956 till: 1958 color:general bar:boone from: 1958 till: 1960 color:nato text:"Walter F. Boone" bar:felt from: 1956 till: 1958 color:vcno bar:felt from: 1958 till: 1964 color:cincpac text:"Harry D. Felt" bar:curts from: 1957 till: 1958 color:general text:"Maurice E. Curts" bar:hollowayjr from: 1958 till: 1959 color:general text:"James L. Holloway Jr." bar:hopwood from: 1958 till: 1960 color:general text:"Herbert G. Hopwood" bar:russell from: 1958 till: 1961 color:vcno bar:russell from: 1961 till: 1965 color:nato text:"James S. Russell" bar:brown from: 1959 till: 1961 color:nato text:"Charles R. Brown" bar:dennison from: 1959 till: 1960 color:general bar:dennison from: 1960 till: 1963 color:cinclant text:"Robert L. Dennison" bar:haroldpagesmith from: 1960 till: 1963 color:general bar:haroldpagesmith from: 1963 till: 1965 color:cinclant text:"Harold Page Smith" bar:sides from: 1960 till: 1963 color:general text:"John H. Sides" bar:anderson from: 1961 till: 1963 color:cno text:"George W. Anderson Jr." bar:ricketts from: 1961 till: 1964 color:vcno text:"Claude V. Ricketts" bar:davidmcdonald from: 1963 till: 1963 color:general bar:davidmcdonald from: 1963 till: 1967 color:cno text:"David L. McDonald" bar:griffin from: 1963 till: 1965 color:general bar:griffin from: 1965 till: 1968 color:nato text:"Charles D. Griffin" bar:sharp from: 1963 till: 1964 color:general bar:sharp from: 1964 till: 1968 color:cincpac text:"U.S. Grant Sharp Jr." bar:moorer from: 1964 till: 1965 color:general bar:moorer from: 1965 till: 1967 color:cinclant bar:moorer from: 1967 till: 1970 color:cno bar:moorer from: 1970 till: 1974 color:jcs text:"Thomas H. Moorer" bar:rivero from: 1964 till: 1968 color:vcno bar:rivero from: 1968 till: 1972 color:nato text:"Horacio Rivero Jr." bar:thach from: 1965 till: 1967 color:general text:"John S. Thach" bar:ward from: 1965 till: 1968 color:nato text:"Alfred G. Ward" bar:royjohnson from: 1965 till: 1967 color:general text:"Roy L. Johnson" bar:mccain from: 1967 till: 1968 color:general bar:mccain from: 1968 till: 1972 color:cincpac text:"John S. McCain Jr." bar:galantin from: 1967 till: 1970 color:general text:"Ignatius J. Galantin" bar:holmes from: 1967 till: 1970 color:cinclant text:"Ephraim P. Holmes" bar:hyland from: 1967 till: 1970 color:general text:"John J. Hyland Jr." bar:clarey from: 1968 till: 1970 color:vcno bar:clarey from: 1970 till: 1973 color:general text:"Bernard A. Clarey" bar:wendt from: 1968 till: 1971 color:general text:"Waldemar F.A. Wendt" bar:zumwalt from: 1970 till: 1974 color:cno text:"Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr." bar:charlesduncan from: 1970 till: 1972 color:cinclant text:"Charles K. Duncan" bar:arnold from: 1970 till: 1971 color:general text:"Jackson D. Arnold" bar:cousins from: 1970 till: 1972 color:vcno bar:cousins from: 1972 till: 1975 color:cinclant text:"Ralph W. Cousins" bar:bringle from: 1971 till: 1973 color:general text:"William F. Bringle" bar:kidd from: 1971 till: 1975 color:general bar:kidd from: 1975 till: 1978 color:cinclant text:"Isaac C. Kidd Jr." bar:colbert from: 1972 till: 1973 color:nato text:"Richard G. Colbert" bar:gayler from: 1972 till: 1976 color:cincpac text:"Noel A.M. Gayler" bar:weisner from: 1972 till: 1973 color:vcno bar:weisner from: 1973 till: 1976 color:general bar:weisner from: 1976 till: 1979 color:cincpac text:"Maurice F. Weisner" bar:hollowayiii from: 1973 till: 1974 color:vcno bar:hollowayiii from: 1974 till: 1978 color:cno text:"James L. Holloway III" bar:worthbagley from: 1973 till: 1974 color:general bar:worthbagley from: 1974 till: 1975 color:vcno text:"Worth H. Bagley" bar:rickover from: 1973 till: 1982 color:nnp text:"Hyman G. Rickover" bar:johnston from: 1973 till: 1975 color:nato text:"Means Johnston Jr." bar:shear from: 1974 till: 1975 color:general bar:shear from: 1975 till: 1977 color:vcno bar:shear from: 1977 till: 1980 color:nato text:"Harold E. Shear" bar:weinel from: 1974 till: 1977 color:nato text:"John P. Weinel" bar:michaelis from: 1975 till: 1978 color:general text:"Frederick H. Michaelis" bar:davidbagley from: 1975 till: 1977 color:general text:"David H. Bagley" bar:stansfieldturner from: 1975 till: 1977 color:nato bar:stansfieldturner from: 1977 till: 1979 color:intel text:"Stansfield Turner" bar:murphy from: 1976 till: 1977 color:intel text:"Daniel J. Murphy" bar:hayward from: 1976 till: 1978 color:general bar:hayward from: 1978 till: 1982 color:cno text:"Thomas B. Hayward" bar:long from: 1977 till: 1979 color:vcno bar:long from: 1979 till: 1983 color:cincpac text:"Robert L.J. Long" bar:davis from: 1978 till: 1981 color:general text:"Donald C. Davis" bar:whittle from: 1978 till: 1981 color:general text:"Alfred J. Whittle Jr." bar:train from: 1978 till: 1982 color:cinclant text:"Harry D. Train II" bar:watkins from: 1979 till: 1981 color:vcno bar:watkins from: 1981 till: 1982 color:general bar:watkins from: 1982 till: 1986 color:cno text:"James D. Watkins" bar:crowe from: 1980 till: 1983 color:nato bar:crowe from: 1983 till: 1985 color:cincpac bar:crowe from: 1985 till: 1989 color:jcs text:"William J. Crowe Jr." bar:inman from: 1981 till: 1982 color:intel text:"Bobby R. Inman" bar:small from: 1981 till: 1983 color:vcno bar:small from: 1983 till: 1985 color:general text:"William N. Small" bar:williams from: 1981 till: 1983 color:general text:"John G. Williams Jr." bar:kinnear from: 1981 till: 1982 color:nato text:"George E.R. Kinnear II" bar:mckee from: 1982 till: 1988 color:nnp text:"Kinnaird R. McKee" bar:foley from: 1982 till: 1985 color:general text:"Sylvester R. Foley Jr." bar:wesleymcdonald from: 1982 till: 1985 color:cinclant text:"Wesley L. McDonald" bar:hays from: 1983 till: 1985 color:vcno bar:hays from: 1985 till: 1988 color:cincpac text:"Ronald J. Hays" bar:white from: 1983 till: 1985 color:general text:"Steven A. White" bar:baggett from: 1985 till: 1988 color:cinclant text:"Lee Baggett Jr." bar:moreau from: 1985 till: 1986 color:general text:"Arthur S. Moreau Jr." bar:lyons from: 1985 till: 1987 color:general text:"James A. Lyons Jr." bar:trost from: 1985 till: 1986 color:general bar:trost from: 1986 till: 1990 color:cno text:"Carlisle A.H. Trost" bar:busey from: 1985 till: 1987 color:vcno bar:busey from: 1987 till: 1989 color:general text:"James B. Busey IV" bar:kelso from: 1986 till: 1988 color:general bar:kelso from: 1988 till: 1990 color:cinclant bar:kelso from: 1990 till: 1994 color:cno text:"Frank B. Kelso II" bar:hardisty from: 1987 till: 1988 color:vcno bar:hardisty from: 1988 till: 1991 color:cincpac text:"Huntington Hardisty" bar:carter from: 1987 till: 1991 color:general text:"Powell F. Carter Jr." bar:jeremiah from: 1987 till: 1990 color:general bar:jeremiah from: 1990 till: 1994 color:jcs text:"David E. Jeremiah" bar:edney from: 1988 till: 1990 color:vcno bar:edney from: 1990 till: 1992 color:cinclant text:"Leon A. Edney" bar:demars from: 1988 till: 1996 color:nnp text:"Bruce DeMars" bar:hogg from: 1988 till: 1991 color:nato text:"James R. Hogg" bar:howe from: 1989 till: 1991 color:general bar:howe from: 1991 till: 1992 color:joint text:"Jonathan T. Howe" bar:larson from: 1990 till: 1991 color:general bar:larson from: 1991 till: 1994 color:cincpac bar:larson from: 1994 till: 1998 color:general text:"Charles R. Larson" bar:jeromejohnson from: 1990 till: 1992 color:vcno text:"Jerome L. Johnson" bar:miller from: 1991 till: 1992 color:general bar:miller from: 1992 till: 1994 color:cinclant text:"Paul David Miller" bar:williamsmith from: 1991 till: 1993 color:nato text:"William D. Smith" bar:kelly from: 1991 till: 1994 color:general text:"Robert J. Kelly" bar:boorda from: 1992 till: 1994 color:general bar:boorda from: 1994 till: 1996 color:cno text:"Jeremy M. Boorda" bar:studeman from: 1992 till: 1995 color:intel text:"William O. Studeman" bar:arthur from: 1992 till: 1995 color:vcno text:"Stanley R. Arthur" bar:mauz from: 1992 till: 1994 color:general text:"Henry H. Mauz Jr." bar:chiles from: 1994 till: 1996 color:joint text:"Henry G. Chiles Jr." bar:owens from: 1994 till: 1996 color:jcs text:"William A. Owens" bar:leightonsmith from: 1994 till: 1996 color:general text:"Leighton W. Smith Jr." bar:macke from: 1994 till: 1996 color:cincpac text:"Richard C. Macke" bar:zlatoper from: 1994 till: 1996 color:general text:"Ronald J. Zlatoper" bar:flanagan from: 1994 till: 1996 color:general text:"William J. Flanagan Jr." bar:prueher from: 1995 till: 1996 color:vcno bar:prueher from: 1996 till: 1999 color:cincpac text:"Joseph W. Prueher" bar:jayjohnson from: 1996 till: 1996 color:vcno bar:jayjohnson from: 1996 till: 2000 color:cno text:"Jay L. Johnson" bar:lopez from: 1996 till: 1998 color:general text:"Thomas J. Lopez" bar:bowman from: 1996 till: 2004 color:nnp text:"Frank L. Bowman" bar:gehman from: 1996 till: 1997 color:vcno bar:gehman from: 1997 till: 2000 color:cinclant text:"Harold W. Gehman Jr." bar:clemins from: 1997 till: 1999 color:general text:"Archie R. Clemins" bar:reason from: 1997 till: 1999 color:general text:"J. Paul Reason" bar:pilling from: 1997 till: 2000 color:vcno text:"Donald L. Pilling" bar:mies from: 1998 till: 2001 color:joint text:"Richard W. Mies" bar:abbot from: 1998 till: 2000 color:joint text:"Charles S. Abbot" bar:ellis from: 1999 till: 2001 color:general bar:ellis from: 2001 till: 2004 color:joint text:"James O. Ellis" bar:blair from: 1999 till: 2002 color:cincpac text:"Dennis C. Blair" bar:clark from: 1999 till: 2000 color:general bar:clark from: 2000 till: 2005 color:cno text:"Vernon E. Clark" bar:fargo from: 1999 till: 2002 color:general bar:fargo from: 2002 till: 2005 color:cincpac text:"Thomas B. Fargo" bar:natter from: 2000 till: 2003 color:general text:"Robert J. Natter" bar:fallon from: 2000 till: 2003 color:vcno bar:fallon from: 2003 till: 2005 color:general bar:fallon from: 2005 till: 2007 color:cincpac bar:fallon from: 2007 till: 2008 color:joint text:"William J. Fallon" bar:gregoryjohnson from: 2001 till: 2004 color:general text:"Gregory G. Johnson" bar:doran from: 2002 till: 2005 color:general text:"Walter F. Doran" bar:giambastiani from: 2002 till: 2005 color:cinclant bar:giambastiani from: 2005 till: 2007 color:jcs text:"Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr." bar:mullen from: 2003 till: 2004 color:vcno bar:mullen from: 2004 till: 2005 color:general bar:mullen from: 2005 till: 2007 color:cno bar:mullen from: 2007 till: $now color:jcs text:"Michael Mullen" bar:nathman from: 2004 till: 2005 color:vcno bar:nathman from: 2005 till: 2007 color:general text:"John B. Nathman" bar:keating from: 2004 till: 2007 color:joint bar:keating from: 2007 till: $now color:cincpac text:"Timothy J. Keating" bar:donald from: 2004 till: $now color:nnp text:"Kirkland H. Donald" bar:willard from: 2005 till: 2007 color:vcno bar:willard from: 2007 till: $now color:general text:"Robert F. Willard" bar:ulrich from: 2005 till: 2007 color:general text:"Henry G. Ulrich III" bar:roughead from: 2005 till: 2007 color:general bar:roughead from: 2007 till: $now color:cno text:"Gary Roughead" bar:stavridis from: 2006 till: $now color:joint text:"James G. Stavridis" bar:walsh from: 2007 till: $now color:vcno text:"Patrick M. Walsh" bar:olson from: 2007 till: $now color:joint text:"Eric T. Olson" bar:greenert from: 2007 till: $now color:general text:"Jonathan W. Greenert" bar:fitzgerald from: 2007 till: $now color:general text:"Mark P. Fitzgerald"

Notes

References

*citation
last = Air Force Association
journal = Air Force Magazine
volume = 89
issue = 5
title = USAF Almanac 2006
url = http://www.afa.org/magazine/may2006/0506structure.pdf
date = May 2006
year = 2006

*citation
first = Ronald H. | last = Cole
first2 = Walter S. | last2 = Poole
first3 = James F. | last3 = Schnabel
first4 = Robert J. | last4 = Watson
first5 = Willard J. | last5 = Webb
title = The History of the Unified Command Plan, 1946-1993
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
url = http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/history/ucp.pdf
year = 1995

*citation
first = Dean R. | last = Heaton
title = Four Stars: The Super Stars of United States Military History
place = Baltimore
publisher = Gateway Press
year = 1995

*citation
last = Naval Historical Center
title = Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Department of the Navy
url = http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/

*citation
first = Archibald Jr. | last = Oden
title = Navy Yearbook
place = Washington D.C.
url = http://books.google.com/books?as_q=navy+yearbook+admiral&num=10&btnG=Google+Search&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_libcat=0&as_brr=0&as_vt=&as_auth=%22United+States+Government+Printing+Office%22&as_pub=&as_drrb=c&as_miny=1919&as_maxy=1919&as_isbn=
publisher = U.S. Government Printing Office
year = 1919

*citation
first = Clark G. | last = Reynolds
title = Famous American Admirals
place = Annapolis
publisher = Naval Institute Press
year = 1978

*citation
last = U.S. Bureau of Naval Personnel
title = Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Department of the Navy
year = 1945, 1950-1984

*citation
last = U.S. Bureau of Naval Personnel
title = Register of Retired Commissioned and Warrant Officers, Regular and Reserve, of the United States Navy and Marine Corps
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Department of the Navy
year = 1960-1984

*citation
last = U.S. Bureau of Naval Personnel
title = Register of Retired Commissioned and Warrant Officers, Regular and Reserve, of the USN, NAVPERS 15939
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Department of the Navy
url = http://buperscd.technology.navy.mil/bup_updt/upd_CD/BUPERS/Register/regopen.pdf
year = 2003

*citation
last = U.S. Bureau of Naval Personnel
title = Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the Active Duty List, NAVPERS 15018
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = Department of the Navy
url = http://buperscd.technology.navy.mil/bup_updt/upd_CD/BUPERS/Register/regopen.pdf
year = 2006

*citation
last = U.S. Naval Forces Europe/U.S. SIXTH Fleet
title = Chronology of Commanders
url = http://www.c6f.navy.mil/Default.asp?P=AboutCNE&SP=Chronology

*citation
first = Gerald E. | last = Wheeler
title = Admiral William Veazie Pratt, U.S. Navy: A Sailor's Life
place = Washington D.C.
publisher = U.S. Government Printing Office
year = 1974

*citation
periodical = World Almanac and Book of Facts
publisher = World Almanac Education Group, Inc.
place = New York
year = 1946-1947, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1990, 1992, 2004, 2006

ee also

*Admiral (United States)
*List of United States four-star officers
*List of United States Army four-star generals
*List of United States Air Force four-star generals
*List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals
*List of United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps four-star admirals
*List of United States military leaders by rank


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