Square Deal


Square Deal

The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program primarily aimed at helping middle class citizens. The policies of the Square Deal involved attacking the plutocracy and trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of unorganized labor.

President Theodore Roosevelt desired to treat both sides fairly in any dispute. In the coal miner's strike of 1902 he treated the United Mine Workers representatives and company bosses as equals; this approach continued during his efforts to regulate the railroads and other businesses during his second term.

The "Square Deal" was the term used by Roosevelt and his associates for the policies of his Administration, particularly with regard to economic policies with which he was associated, such as antitrust enforcement. As such, it seems to have been a precursor to the New Deal of his distant cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt thirty years later.

During the 1904 campaign, Roosevelt boasted that he had worked in the anthracite coal strike to provide everyone with a "square deal." In his second term, he tried to extend his square deal further. One of his first targets was the railroad industry. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, establishing the Interstate commerce Commission (ICC) had been an early effort to regulate the industry; but over the years, the courts had sharply limited its influence.

One of the major elements of Roosevelt's Square Deal was the promotion of antitrust suits. During his administration, the federal government initiated actions against 44 major corporations. He argued that some "bad" trusts had to be curbed, and "good" ones encouraged and that executive agencies ought to have discretion in picking out which were "good" and which were "bad." As such, Roosevelt pushed for the courts, which had been guided by a clearly delineated standard up to that point, to yield to the wishes of the executive branch on all subsequent anti-trust suits.

Railroads were not allowed to give rebates to favored companies any longer. The government controlled the prices railroads could charge, which had the long-term negative effect of weakening the railroads, as they faced new competition from trucks and buses.

Meat had to be processed safely with proper sanitation, giving the advantage to large packing houses and undercutting small local operations. Foodstuffs and drugs could no longer be mislabeled, nor could consumers be deliberately misled.

References

*Brands, H.W. "Theodore Roosevelt" (2001) [http://www.questia.com/library/book/t-r-the-last-romantic-by-h-w-brands.jsp online edition]
*Gould, Lewis L. "The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt." (1991), the major scholarly study
*Harbaugh, William Henry. "The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt." (1963)
*Morris, Edmund "Theodore Rex". (2001), biography that covers 1901-1909
* [http://serv.ul.cs.cmu.edu/zoom/record.html?id=15584 Mowry, George. "The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900-1912." (1954) online] , major survey of era
*Rhodes, James Ford Rhodes. "Thed McKinley and Roosevelt Administrations, 1897-1909" (1922) [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6404794 onine
*McGrawHill 5 steps to a 5 AP U.S History second edition
*A Survey American History by: Alan Brinkley Twelfth Edition

External links

* [http://www.teddyroosevelt.com TeddyRoosevelt.com: offers information on the proponent of the Square Deal ]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Square Deal —   [ skweə diːl; englisch »faires Geschäft«], vom amerikanischen Präs. T. Roosevelt 1904 geprägtes Schlagwort für sein Programm zur Verwirklichung sozialer Gerechtigkeit …   Universal-Lexikon

  • square deal — ☆ square deal n. Informal any dealing that is honest and fair …   English World dictionary

  • square deal — {n. phr.} 1. Equitable or fair treatment. * /We are proud to say that at this firm every employee gets a square deal./ Contrast NEW DEAL, RAW DEAL …   Dictionary of American idioms

  • square deal — {n. phr.} 1. Equitable or fair treatment. * /We are proud to say that at this firm every employee gets a square deal./ Contrast NEW DEAL, RAW DEAL …   Dictionary of American idioms

  • square deal — noun fair treatment • Syn: ↑fair deal • Hypernyms: ↑deal * * * noun 1. : an honest and fair transaction or trade 2. : a political program aiming at a fair consideration of the interests of all concerned * * * a fair and honest arrangement or… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Square Deal — El Square Deal (literalmente Acuerdo Cuadrado en inglés) fue un programa de Theodore Roosevelt, presidente de los Estados Unidos, dirigido a su política interna y basada en algunos principios de ayuda a la clase media mientras se suprimían las… …   Wikipedia Español

  • square deal —    A transaction that is fair and honest, or an equitable arrangement, is called a square deal.     We ve used the same supplier for years and we always get a square deal …   English Idioms & idiomatic expressions

  • square\ deal — n. phr. 1. Equitable or fair treatment. We are proud to say that at this firm every employee gets a square deal. Contrast: new deal, raw deal …   Словарь американских идиом

  • square deal — a fair and honest arrangement or transaction. [1880 85, Amer.] * * * Term used by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt to describe his approach to social problems. It embraced his idealistic view of labour, citizenship, parenthood, and Christian ethics. He… …   Universalium

  • Square Deal — U.S. Hist. the stated policy of President Theodore Roosevelt, originally promising fairness in all dealings with labor and management and later extended to include other groups. * * * Term used by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt to describe his approach …   Universalium


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